Lists of NES games

I am frequently looking this stuff up, so I decided to just post the lists here. Sources BootGod and Wikipedia.

US NES games

(minus the prototypes and duplicates)

10-Yard Fight
1942
1943: The Battle of Midway
3-D Battles of Worldrunner, The
6 in 1
720°
8 Eyes
Abadox: The Deadly Inner War
Action 52
Addams Family, The
Addams Family, The: Pugsley’s Scavenger Hunt
Adventure Island
Adventure Island II
Adventure Island III
Adventures in the Magic Kingdom, Disney’s
Adventures of Bayou Billy, The
Adventures of Dino Riki
Adventures of Gilligan’s Island, The
Adventures of Lolo
Adventures of Lolo 2
Adventures of Lolo 3
Adventures of Rad Gravity, The
Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends, The
Adventures of Tom Sawyer
After Burner
Air Fortress
Airwolf
Al Unser Jr. Turbo Racing
Alfred Chicken
Alien Syndrome
Alien³
All-Pro Basketball
Alpha Mission
Amagon
American Gladiators
Anticipation
Arch Rivals: A Basketbrawl!
Archon
Arkanoid
Arkista’s Ring
Astyanax
Athena
Athletic World
Attack of the Killer Tomatoes
Baby Boomer
Back to the Future
Back to the Future II & III
Bad Dudes
Bad News Baseball
Bad Street Brawler
Balloon Fight
Bandai Golf: Challenge Pebble Beach
Bandit Kings of Ancient China
Barbie (RevA)
Bard’s Tale, The: Tales of the Unknown
Barker Bill’s Trick Shooting
Base Wars: Cyber Stadium Series
Baseball
Baseball Simulator 1.000
Baseball Stars
Baseball Stars II
Bases Loaded (RevA)
Bases Loaded 3, Ryne Sandberg Plays
Bases Loaded 4
Bases Loaded II: Second Season
Batman
Batman Returns
Batman: Return of the Joker
Battle Chess
Battle of Olympus, The
Battle Tank, Garry Kitchen’s
Battleship
Battletoads
Battletoads & Double Dragon: The Ultimate Team
Bee 52
Beetlejuice
Best of the Best: Championship Karate
Bible Adventures (Ver1.4)
Bible Buffet (Ver6.0)
Big Nose Freaks Out
Big Nose the Caveman
Bigfoot
Bill & Ted’s Excellent Video Game Adventure
Bill Elliott’s NASCAR Challenge
Bionic Commando
Black Bass, The
Blackjack
Blades of Steel
Blaster Master
Blue Marlin, The
Blues Brothers, The
Bo Jackson Baseball
Bomberman
Bomberman II
Bonk’s Adventure
Boulder Dash
Boy and His Blob, A: Trouble on Blobolonia, David Crane’s
Bram Stoker’s Dracula
Break Time: The National Pool Tour
BreakThru
Bubble Bath Babes
Bubble Bobble
Bubble Bobble: Part 2
Bucky O’Hare
Bugs Bunny Birthday Blowout, The
Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle, The
Bump ‘n’ Jump
Burai Fighter
BurgerTime
Cabal
Caesars Palace
California Games
Capcom’s Gold Medal Challenge ’92
Captain America and the Avengers
Captain Comic: The Adventure
Captain Planet and the Planeteers
Captain SkyHawk
Casino Kid
Casino Kid II
Castelian
Castle of Deceit
Castle of Dragon
Castlequest
Castlevania
Castlevania II: Simon’s Quest
Castlevania III: Dracula’s Curse
Caveman Games
Challenge of the Dragon
Championship Bowling
Championship Pool
Chessmaster, The
Chiller (CHR-CB55)
Chip ‘n Dale Rescue Rangers 2, Disney’s
Chip ‘n Dale Rescue Rangers, Disney’s
Chubby Cherub
Circus Caper
City Connection
Clash At Demonhead
Classic Concentration
Cliffhanger
Clu Clu Land
Cobra Command
Cobra Triangle
Code Name: Viper
Color A Dinosaur
Commando
Conan
Conflict
Conquest of the Crystal Palace
Contra
Contra Force
Cool World
Cowboy Kid
Crash ‘n The Boys: Street Challenge
Crystal Mines
Crystalis
Cyberball
Cybernoid: The Fighting Machine
Dance Aerobics
Darkman
Darkwing Duck, Disney’s
Dash Galaxy in the Alien Asylum
Day Dreamin’ Davey
Days of Thunder
Deadly Towers
Death Race
Deathbots
Defender II
Defender of the Crown
Defenders of Dynatron City
Déjà Vu
Demon Sword
Desert Commander
Destination Earthstar
Destiny of an Emperor
Dick Tracy
Die Hard
Dig Dug II: Trouble in Paradise
Digger T. Rock: The Legend of the Lost City
Dirty Harry
Dizzy The Adventurer
Donkey Kong (RevA)
Donkey Kong 3
Donkey Kong Classics
Donkey Kong Jr. (RevA)
Donkey Kong Jr. Math
Double Dare
Double Dragon
Double Dragon II: The Revenge (RevA)
Double Dragon III: The Sacred Stones
Double Dribble (RevA)
Double Strike (Ver1.1)
Dr. Chaos
Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Dr. Mario
Dragon Fighter
Dragon Power
Dragon Spirit: The New Legend
Dragon Warrior (RevA)
Dragon Warrior II
Dragon Warrior III (Rev0B)
Dragon Warrior IV
Dragon’s Lair
DragonStrike, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
Duck Hunt
DuckTales 2, Disney’s
DuckTales, Disney’s
Dudes with Attitude
Dungeon Magic: Sword of the Elements
Dusty Diamond’s All-Star Softball
Dynowarz: The Destruction of Spondylus
Elevator Action
Eliminator Boat Duel
Excitebike
Exodus: Journey to the Promised Land (Ver4.0)
F-117a Stealth Fighter
F-15 City War (Ver1.1)
F-15 Strike Eagle
Family Feud, The All New
Fantastic Adventures of Dizzy, The
Fantasy Zone
Faria
Faxanadu (RevA)
Felix the Cat
Ferrari Grand Prix Challenge
Fester’s Quest
Final Fantasy
Fire Hawk
Fire’n Ice
Fisher-Price: Firehouse Rescue
Fisher-Price: I Can Remember
Fisher-Price: Perfect Fit
Fist of the North Star
Flight of the Intruder
Flintstones, The: The Rescue of Dino & Hoppy
Flintstones, The: The Surprise at Dinosaur Peak!
Flying Dragon: The Secret Scroll
Flying Warriors
Formula One: Built to Win
Fox’s Peter Pan & The Pirates: The Revenge of Captain Hook
Frankenstein: The Monster Returns
Freedom Force
Friday the 13th
Fun House
G.I. Joe
G.I. Joe: The Atlantis Factor
Galactic Crusader
Galaga: Demons of Death
Galaxy 5000: Racing in the 51st Century
Game Genie (Rev1.5A)
Gargoyle’s Quest II
Gauntlet
Gauntlet II
Gemfire
Genghis Khan
George Foreman’s KO Boxing
Ghostbusters
Ghostbusters II
Ghosts ‘n Goblins
Ghoul School
Goal!
Goal! Two
Godzilla 2: War of the Monsters
Godzilla: Monster of Monsters!
Golf
Golf Grand Slam
Golgo 13: The Mafat Conspiracy
Golgo 13: Top Secret Episode
Goonies II, The
Gotcha! The Sport!
Gradius
Great Waldo Search, The
Greg Norman’s Golf Power
Gremlins 2: The New Batch
Guardian Legend, The
Guerrilla War
Gumshoe
Gun Nac
Gun.Smoke
Gyromite
Gyruss
Harlem Globetrotters
Hatris
Heavy Barrel
Heavy Shreddin’
Heroes of the Lance, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
High Speed
Hillsfar, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
Hogan’s Alley
Hollywood Squares
Home Alone (RevA)
Home Alone 2: Lost in New York
Hook
Hoops
Hudson Hawk
Hunt for Red October, The (RevA)
Hydlide
Ice Climber
Ice Hockey
Ikari Warriors
Ikari Warriors II: Victory Road
Ikari Warriors III: The Rescue
Image Fight
Immortal, Will Harvey Presents The
Impossible Mission-II
Incredible Crash Dummies, The
Indiana Jones and The Last Crusade (Taito)
Indiana Jones and The Last Crusade (UBI Soft)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Mindscape)
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (Tengen)
Indy Heat, Danny Sullivan’s
Infiltrator
Iron Tank: The Invasion of Normandy
IronSword: Wizards & Warriors II
Isolated Warrior
Jack Nicklaus’ Greatest 18 Holes of Major Championship Golf
Jackal
Jackie Chan’s Action Kung Fu
James Bond Jr.
Jaws
Jeopardy! (RevA)
Jeopardy!: 25th Anniversary Edition
Jeopardy!: Junior Edition
Jetsons, The: Cogswell’s Caper
Jimmy Connors Tennis
Joe & Mac
John Elway’s Quarterback
Jordan vs. Bird: One on One
Joshua & the Battle of Jericho (Ver6.0)
Journey to Silius
Joust
Jungle Book, Disney’s The
Jurassic Park
Kabuki: Quantum Fighter
Karate Champ (RevA)
Karate Kid, The
Karnov
Kick Master
Kickle Cubicle
Kid Icarus
Kid Klown in Night Mayor World
Kid Kool and the Quest for the Seven Wonder Herbs
Kid Niki: Radical Ninja (RevA)
King Neptune’s Adventure
King of Kings, The: The Early Years (Ver1.2)
King’s Knight
King’s Quest V
Kings of the Beach
Kirby’s Adventure (RevA)
Kiwi Kraze: A Bird-Brained Adventure!
KlashBall
Klax
Knight Rider
Krazy Kreatures (Ver1.1)
Krion Conquest, The
Krusty’s Fun House
Kung Fu
Kung-Fu Heroes
L’Empereur
Laser Invasion
Last Action Hero
Last Ninja, The
Last Starfighter, The
Lee Trevino’s Fighting Golf
Legacy of the Wizard
Legend of Kage, The
Legend of the Ghost Lion
Legend of Zelda, The (RevA)
Legendary Wings
Legends of the Diamond: The Baseball Championship Game
Lemmings
Lethal Weapon
Life Force (Rev0A)
Linus Spacehead’s Cosmic Crusade
Little League Baseball Championship Series
Little Mermaid, Disney’s The
Little Nemo: The Dream Master
Little Ninja Brothers
Little Samson
Lode Runner
Lone Ranger, The
Loopz
Low G Man: The Low Gravity Man
Lunar Pool
M.C. Kids
M.U.L.E.
M.U.S.C.L.E.: Tag Team Match
Mach Rider
Mad Max
Magic Darts
Magic Johnson’s Fast Break
Magic of Scheherazade, The
Magician
Magmax
Major League Baseball (RevA)
Maniac Mansion
Mappy-Land
Marble Madness
Mario Bros.
Mario Is Missing!
Mario’s Time Machine
Master Chu and the Drunkard Hu
Maxi 15
Mechanized Attack
Mega Man
Mega Man 2
Mega Man 3
Mega Man 4 (RevA)
Mega Man 5
Mega Man 6
Menace Beach
Mendel Palace
Mermaids of Atlantis: The Riddle of the Magic Bubble
Metal Fighter
Metal Gear
Metal Mech: Man & Machine
Metal Storm
Metroid
Michael Andretti’s World GP
Mickey Mousecapade
Mickey’s Adventure in Numberland
Mickey’s Safari in Letterland
Micro Machines
MIG-29 Soviet Fighter
Might and Magic: Secret of the Inner Sanctum
Mighty Bomb Jack
Mighty Final Fight
Mike Tyson’s Punch-Out!! (RevA)
Millipede
Milon’s Secret Castle
Miracle Piano Teaching System, The
Mission Cobra
Mission: Impossible
Monopoly
Monster In My Pocket
Monster Party
Monster Truck Rally
Moon Ranger
Motor City Patrol
Ms. Pac-Man (Namco)
Ms. Pac-Man (Tengen)
MTV’s Remote Control
Muppet Adventure: Chaos at the Carnival
Mutant Virus, The: Crisis in a Computer World
Mystery Quest
NARC
NES Open Tournament Golf
NES Play Action Football
NFL
Nigel Mansell’s World Championship Racing
Nightmare on Elm Street, A
Nightshade
Ninja Crusaders
Ninja Gaiden
Ninja Gaiden II: The Dark Sword of Chaos
Ninja Gaiden III: The Ancient Ship of Doom
Ninja Kid
Nintendo World Championships 1990
Nintendo World Cup
Nobunaga’s Ambition
Nobunaga’s Ambition II
North & South
NTF2 System Cartridge
Operation Secret Storm
Operation Wolf: Take no Prisoners (Rev0A)
Orb 3-D
Othello
Overlord
P’radikus Conflict
P.O.W.: Prisoners of War
Pac-Man (Tengen)
Pac-Man (Namco)
Pac-Mania
Palamedes
Panic Restaurant
Paperboy
Paperboy 2
Pesterminator
Phantom Fighter
Pictionary
Pin-Bot
Pinball
Pinball Quest
Pipe Dream
Pirates!
Platoon (RevA)
Pool of Radiance, Advanced Dungeons & Dragons
Popeye (RevA)
Power Blade
Power Blade 2
Power Punch II
Predator
Prince of Persia
Princess Tomato in the Salad Kingdom
Pro Sport Hockey
Pro Wrestling (RevA)
Punch-Out!!
Punisher, The
Puss ‘n Boots: Pero’s Great Adventure
Puzzle
Puzznic
Pyramid
Q*bert
Qix
Quattro Adventure
Quattro Arcade
Quattro Sports
R.B.I. Baseball
R.B.I. Baseball 2
R.B.I. Baseball 3
R.C. Pro-Am (RevA)
R.C. Pro-Am II
Race America, Alex DeMeo’s
RacerMate Challenge II (9.03.128)
Racket Attack
Rad Racer
Rad Racer II
Rad Racket: Deluxe Tennis II
Raid 2020
Raid on Bungeling Bay
Rainbow Islands
Rally Bike
Rambo
Rampage
Rampart
Ren & Stimpy Show, The: Buckeroo$!
Renegade
Rescue: The Embassy Mission
Ring King
River City Ransom
Road Runner
RoadBlasters
Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
Robo Warrior
RoboCop
RoboCop 2 (RevA)
RoboCop 3
Robodemons
Rock’n’ Ball
Rocket Ranger
Rocketeer, The
Rockin’ Kats
Roger Clemens’ MVP Baseball
Rollerball
Rollerblade Racer
Rollergames
Rolling Thunder
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Romance of the Three Kingdoms II
Roundball: 2-on-2 Challenge
Rush’n Attack
Rygar (RevA)
S.C.A.T.: Special Cybernetic Attack Team
Secret Scout in the Temple of Demise
Section Z
Seicross
Sesame Street 123
Sesame Street ABC
Sesame Street ABC & 123
Sesame Street Countdown
Sesame Street: Big Bird’s Hide and Speak
Shadow of the Ninja
Shadowgate
Shatterhand
Shingen The Ruler
Shinobi
Shockwave
Shooting Range
Short Order / Eggsplode!
Side Pocket
Silent Assault
Silent Service (RevA)
Silkworm
Silver Surfer
Simpsons, The: Bart vs. The Space Mutants
Simpsons, The: Bart vs. The World
Simpsons, The: Bartman Meets Radioactive Man
Skate or Die 2: The Search for Double Trouble
Skate or Die!
Ski or Die
Skull & Crossbones
Sky Kid
Sky Shark (Rev0A)
Slalom
Smash T.V.
Snake Rattle ‘n Roll
Snake’s Revenge
Snoopy’s Silly Sports Spectacular!
Snow Brothers
Soccer
Solar Jetman: Hunt for the Golden Warpship
Solitaire (Ver1.1)
Solomon’s Key
Solstice: The Quest for the Staff of Demnos
Space Shuttle Project
Spelunker
Spider-Man: Return of the Sinister Six
Spiritual Warfare (Ver6.1)
Spot
Spy Hunter
Spy vs. Spy
Sqoon
Stack-Up
Stadium Events
Stanley: The Search for Dr. Livingston
Star Force
Star Soldier
Star Trek: 25th Anniversary
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Voyager
Star Wars
Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back
Starship Hector
StarTropics
Stealth ATF
Stinger
Street Cop
Street Fighter 2010: The Final Fight
Strider
Stunt Kids
Sunday Funday: The Ride
Super C
Super Cars
Super Dodge Ball
Super Glove Ball
Super Jeopardy!
Super Mario Bros.
Super Mario Bros. / Duck Hunt
Super Mario Bros. / Duck Hunt / World Class Track Meet
Super Mario Bros. 2 (RevA)
Super Mario Bros. 3
Super Off Road, Ivan “Ironman” Stewart’s
Super Pitfall
Super Spike V’Ball
Super Spike V’Ball / Nintendo World Cup
Super Sprint
Super Spy Hunter
Super Team Games
Superman
Swamp Thing
Sword Master
Swords and Serpents
T&C Surf Designs 2: Thrilla’s Surfari
T&C Surf Designs: Wood and Water Rage
T2: Terminator 2: Judgment Day
Taboo: The Sixth Sense
Tag Team Wrestling
Tagin’ Dragon
TaleSpin, Disney’s
Target: Renegade
Tecmo Baseball
Tecmo Bowl
Tecmo Cup: Soccer Game
Tecmo NBA Basketball
Tecmo Super Bowl
Tecmo World Wrestling
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Arcade Game
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Tournament Fighters
Tennis
Terminator, The
Terra Cresta
Tetris (Nintendo)
Tetris (Tengen)
Tetris 2
Three Stooges, The
Thunder & Lightning
Thunderbirds
Thundercade
Tiger-Heli
Tiles of Fate
Time Lord
Times of Lore
Tiny Toon Adventures
Tiny Toon Adventures 2: Trouble in Wackyland
Tiny Toon Adventures: Cartoon Workshop
To The Earth
Toki
Tom & Jerry
Tombs and Treasure
Toobin’
Top Gun
Top Gun: The Second Mission
Top Players’ Tennis, Chris Evert & Ivan Lendl in
Total Recall
Totally Rad
Touchdown Fever
Toxic Crusaders
Track & Field
Track & Field II (RevA)
Treasure Master
Trog!
Trojan
Trolls on Treasure Island
Twin Cobra
Twin Eagle
Ultima: Exodus
Ultima: Quest of the Avatar
Ultima: Warriors of Destiny
Ultimate Air Combat
Ultimate Basketball
Ultimate League Soccer
Ultimate Stuntman, The
Uncanny X-Men, The
Uncharted Waters
Uninvited
Untouchables, The (RevA)
Urban Champion
Vegas Dream
Venice Beach Volleyball
Vice: Project Doom
Videomation
Vindicators
Volleyball
Wacky Races
Wall Street Kid
Wally Bear and the No! Gang
Wario’s Woods
Wayne Gretzky Hockey
Wayne’s World
WCW World Championship Wrestling
Werewolf: The Last Warrior
Wheel of Fortune
Wheel of Fortune featuring Vanna White
Wheel of Fortune: Family Edition
Wheel of Fortune: Junior Edition
Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego?
Where’s Waldo?
Who Framed Roger Rabbit
Whomp ‘Em
Widget
Wild Gunman
Willow
Win, Lose or Draw
Winter Games (RevA)
Wizardry: Knight of Diamonds
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord
Wizards & Warriors
Wizards & Warriors III
Wolverine
World Champ
World Class Track Meet
World Games
Wrath of the Black Manta (RevA)
Wrecking Crew
WURM: Journey to the Center of the Earth
WWF King of the Ring
WWF WrestleMania
WWF WrestleMania Challenge
WWF WrestleMania: Steel Cage Challenge
Xenophobe
Xevious: The Avenger
Xexyz
Yo! Noid
Yoshi
Yoshi’s Cookie
Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The
Zanac
Zelda II: The Adventure of Link
Zen: Intergalactic Ninja
Zoda’s Revenge: StarTropics II
Zombie Nation

European PAL Exclusive NES Games

Asterix
Aussie Rules Footy
Banana Prince
Championship Rally
Crackout
Devil World
Disney’s Aladdin
Disney’s Beauty and the Beast
Disney’s The Lion King
Dropzone
Elite
Formula One Sensation
Hammerin’ Harry
International Cricket
Kick Off
Konami Hyper Soccer
The Legend of Prince Valiant
Les Chevaliers du Zodiaque : La Légende d’or
Mario Bros. (Classic Series)
Mr. Gimmick!
New Ghostbusters II
Noah’s Ark
Over Horizon
Parasol Stars: Rainbow Islands II
Parodius
Rackets & Rivals
Rainbow Islands: Bubble Bobble 2
Road Fighter
Rod Land
The Smurfs
Super Mario Bros./Tetris/Nintendo World Cup
Super Turrican
Tecmo World Cup Soccer
The Trolls in Crazyland
Ufouria: The Saga

Japanese / Famicom Games

Note: Airwolf, Star Wars, and Tetris are different from the US versions.

’89 Dennou Kyuusei Uranai
10-Yard Fight
1942
1943: The Battle of Valhalla
2010 Street Fighter
4 Nin Uchi Mahjong
8 Eyes
A Ressha de Ikou
A Week of Garfield
Aa Yakyu Jinsei Itchokusen
Abadox
Abarenbou Tengu
Aces: Iron Eagle III
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Dragons of Flame
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Heroes of the Lance
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Hillsfar
Advanced Dungeons & Dragons: Pool of Radiance
Adventures of Lolo
Adventures of Lolo 2
After Burner
Ai Sensei no Oshiete: Watashi no Hoshi
Aigiina no Yogen: From the Legend of Balubalouk
Air Fortress
Airwolf
Akagawa Jirou no Yuurei Ressha
Akira
Akuma no Shoutaijou
Akuma-kun: Makai no Wana
Akumajou Densetsu
Akumajou Dracula
Akumajou Special: Boku Dracula Kun
Alien Syndrome
America Daitoryo Senkyo
America Oudan Ultra Quiz: Shijou Saidai no Tatakai
American Dream
Ankoku Shinwa: Yamato Takeru Densetsu
Antarctic Adventure
Aoki Ookami to Shiroki Mejika: Genchou Hishi
Aoki Ookami to Shiroki Mejika: Genghis Khan
Arabian Dream Scheherazade
Arctic
Argos no Senshi
Argus
Arkanoid
Arkanoid II
Armadillo
Artelius
Asmik-kun Land
ASO: Armored Scrum Object
Astro Fang: Super Machine
Astro Robo Sasa
Athena
Atlantis no Nazo
Attack Animal Gakuen
B-Wings
Babel no Tou
Baken Hisshou Gaku: Gate In
Bakusho! Ai no Gekijo
Bakushou!! Jinsei Gekijou
Bakushou!! Jinsei Gekijou 2
Bakushou!! Jinsei Gekijou 3
Bakusho! Star Monomane Shitenno
Ballblazer
Balloon Fight
Baltron
Banana
Bananan Ouji no Daibouken
Barcode World
Bard’s Tale: Tales of the Unknown
The Bard’s Tale II: The Destiny Knight
Baseball
Baseball Fighter
Baseball Stars: Mezase Sankanou!!
Batman
Bats & Terry
Battle Baseball
Battle City
Battle Fleet
Battle Formula
Datach: Battle Rush: Build Up Robot Tournament
Battle Stadium: Senbatsu Pro Yakyuu
Battle Storm
Battletoads
Be-Bop High School: Koukousei Gokuraku Densetsu
Best Keiba: Derby Stallion
Best Play Pro Yakyuu
Best Play Pro Yakyuu II
Best Play Pro Yakyuu ’90
Best Play Pro Yakyuu Shin Data
Best Play Pro Yakyuu Special
Bikkuri Nekketsu Shin Kiroku! Harukanaru Kin Medal
Bikkuriman World: Gekitou Sei Senshi
Binary Land
Bio Miracle Bokutte Upa
Bio Senshi Dan: Increaser to no Tatakai
Bird Week
The Black Bass
The Black Bass 2
Block Set (Rob the Robot and Stack-Up “Block”)
Blodia Land: Puzzle Quest
Bloody Warriors: Shan-Go no Gyakushuu
Blue Marlin, The
Bokosuka Wars
Bomber King
Bomberman
Bomberman II
Booby Kids
Boulder Dash
Bubble Bobble 2
Bucky O’Hare
Buggy Popper
Burai Fighter
BurgerTime
Business Wars
Cadillac
Capcom Barcelona ’92
Captain Ed
Captain Saver
Captain Silver
Captain Tsubasa
Captain Tsubasa Vol. II: Super Striker
Casino Derby & Super Bingo
Castle Excellent
Castle Quest
Chack’n Pop
Challenger
Championship Bowling
Championship Lode Runner
Chaos World
Chester Field: Ankoku Shin e no Chosen
Chibi Maruko-Chan: Uki Uki Shopping
Chiisana Obake: Achhi Sochhi Kocchi
Chiki Chiki Machine Mou Race
Chip to Dale no Daisakusen
Chip to Dale no Daisakusen 2
Chitei Senkou Bazolder
Chiyonofuji no Oicho
Choplifter
Chou-Wakusei Senki MetaFight
Choujikuu Yousai Macross
Chojin Sentai Jetman
Choujin Ultra Baseball
Choujinrou Senki Warwolf
Chuugoku Janshi Story: Tonpuu
Chuugoku Senseijutsu
Chuuka Taisen
Circus Charlie
City Adventure Touch: Mystery of Triangle
City Connection
Clu Clu Land
Cobra Command
Cocoron
Columbus: Ougon no Yoake
Conflict
Contra
Cosmic Epsilon
Cosmic Wars
Cosmo Genesis
Cosmo Police Galivan
Crayon Shin-Chan: Ora to Poi Poi
Crazy Climber
Crisis Force
Cross Fire
Cycle Race: Road Man
Dai-2-Ji Super Robot Taisen
Daikaijyu Deburasu
Daikoukai Jidai
Daiku no Gen-San
Daiku no Gen-San 2
Dai Meiro – Meikyuu no Tatsujin
Daisenryaku
Daiva
Dark Lord
Dash Yarou
Datach Crayon Shin-Chan: Ora to Poi Poi
Datsugoku
De-Block
Deep Dungeon III
Deep Dungeon IV
Deja Vu
Dengeki Big Bang!
Densetsu no Kishi Elrond
Derby Stallion Zengokuban
Devilman
Devil World
Dezaemon
Die Hard
Dig Dug
Dig Dug II
Digital Devil Monogatari Megami Tensei
Digital Devil Monogatari: Megami Tensei II
Doki! Doki! Yuenchi: Crazy Land Daisakusen
Dokuganryu Masamune
Don Doko Don
Don Doko Don 2
Donald Duck
Donald Land
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong 3
Donkey Kong Jr. Math
Donkey Kong Jr.
Door Door
Doraemon
Doraemon: Giga Zombie no Gyakushu
Double Dragon
Double Dragon II: The Revenge
Double Dragon III: The Rosetta Stone
Double Moon Densetsu
Dough Boy
Downtown Nekketsu Koushinkyoku: Soreyuke Daiundoukai
Downtown Nekketsu Monogatari
Downtown Special: Kunio-kun no Jidaigeki Dayo Zenin Shuugou! 
Dr. Mario
Dragon Ball 3: Gokuuden
Dragon Ball Z
Dragon Ball Z Side Story: Plan to Eradicate the Saiyans
Dragon Ball Z II: Gekishin Freeza
Dragon Ball Z III: Ressen Jinzou Ningen
Datach: Dragon Ball Z: Gekitou Tenkaichi Budokai
Dragon Ball: Daimaou Fukkatsu
Dragon Ball: Shenron no Nazo
Dragon Buster
Dragon Buster II
Dragon Fighter
Dragon Ninja
Dragon Quest
Dragon Quest II: Gods of the Evil Spirits
Dragon Quest III: And thus into Legend…
Dragon Quest IV: The Guided Ones
Dragon Scroll
Dragon Slayer IV: Drasle Family
Dragon Slayer Jr.: Romancia
Dragon Spirit: Aratanaru Densetsu
Dragon Unit
Dragon Wars
Dragon’s Lair
Dream Master
Duck Hunt
DuckTales 2
Dungeon Kid
Dungeon & Magic: Sword of Element
Dynamite Batman
Dynamite Bowl
Eggerland: Meikyu no Fukkatsu
Egypt
Elevator Action
Elnark no Zaihou
Elysion
Emoyan no 10-bai Pro Yakyuu
Erika to Satoru no Yume Boken
Esper Boukentai
Esper Dream 2
Excitebike
Exciting Boxing
Exciting Rally
Exed Exes
Exerion
F-1 Hero 2, Nakajima Satoru Kanshuu
F1 Circus
F-1 Sensation
F-1 Race
Famicom Igo Nyuumon
Famicom Jump: Hero Retsuden
Famicom Jump II: The Strongest Seven
Famicom Meijinsen
Famicom Shougi: Ryuu-Ou-Sen
Famicom Top Management
Famicom Wars
Famicom Yakyuuban
Family Block
Family Boxing
Family Circuit
Family Circuit ’91
Family Computer Othello
Family Jockey
Family Mahjong
Family Mahjong II: Shanghai he no Michi
Family Pinball
Family Quiz
Family Tennis
Family Trainer: Aerobics Studio
Family Trainer: Athletic World
Family Trainer: Daiundokai
Family Trainer: Fuuun! Takeshi Shiro 2
Family Trainer: Jogging Race
Family Trainer: Manhattan Police
Family Trainer: Meiro Daisakusen
Family Trainer: Rai Rai! Kyonshizu: Baby Kyonshi no Amida Daibouken
Family Trainer: Running Stadium
Family Trainer: Totsugeki! Fuuun Takeshi Shiro
Famista ’89 Kaimaku Ban!!
Famista ’90
Famista ’91
Famista ’92
Famista ’93
Famista ’94
Fantasy Zone
Fantasy Zone 2: The Teardrop of Opa-Opa
Faria Fuuin no Tsurugi
Faxanadu
FC Genjin
Ferrari
Field Combat
Fighting Golf
Fighting Road
Final Fantasy
Final Fantasy I+II
Final Fantasy II
Final Fantasy III
Final Lap
Final Mission
Fire Emblem: Shadow Dragon and the Blade of Light
Fire Emblem Gaiden
Flappy
Fleet Commander
Flintstones: The Rescue of Dino and Hoppy
Flipull
Flying Hero
Formation Z
Front Line
Fudou Myououden
Fushigi na Blobby
Fushigi no Umi no Nadia
Fuzzical Fighter
Galaga
Galaxian
Gambler Jiko Chuushinha
Gambler Jiko Chuushinha 2
Game Party
Ganbare Goemon! Karakuri Dochu
Ganbare Goemon 2
Ganbare Goemon Gaiden: Kieta Ougon Kiseru
Ganbare Goemon Gaiden 2
Ganbare Pennant Race!
Ganso Saiyuki: Super Monkey Daiboken
Gegege no Kitaro: Youkai Daimakyou
Gegege no Kitaro 2
Geimos
Gekikame Ninja Den (= TMNT)
Gekitotsu Shiku Battle
Gekitou Pro Wrestling!! Toukon Densetsu
Gekitou!! Stadium
Genpei Toma Den
Getsu Fuma Den
Ghostbusters
Gimme a Break: Shijou Saikyou no Quiz Ou Ketteisen
Gimme a Break: Shijou Saikyou no Quiz Ou Ketteisen 2
Gimmick!
Ginga Eiyuu Densetsu
Ginga no Sannin
Goal !!
God Slayer: Haruka Tenku no Sonata
Gojira (Godzilla)
Golf
The Golf ’92
Golf Club: Birdie Rush
Golf Grand Slam
Golf-kko Open
Golgo 13: Kamigami no Koukon
Golgo 13 II
Gomoku Narabe Renju
Goonies
Goonies II: Fratelli Saigo no Chousen
Gorby no Pipeline Daisakusen
Gorilla Man
Gozonji Yajikitatin Douchuu
Gradius
Gradius II
Grand Master
Great Battle Cyber
Great Boxing – Rush Up
Great Deal
Great Tank
Gremlins 2: The New Batch
Guardic Gaiden
Guevara
GunHed: Aratanaru Tatakai
Gun-Nac
Gun Sight
Gun-Dec
Gyro (Gyromite)
Gyrodine
Haja No Fuuin: Miracle Warriors
Hana no Star Kaidou
Hanjuku Hero
Happy Birthday Bugs
Hatris
Hayauchi Super Igo
Heavy Barrel
Hebereke
Hector ’87
Heisei Tensai Bakabon
Hello Kitty no Hanabatake
Hello Kitty World
Heracles no Eikou: Toujin Makyouden
Heracles no Eikou II: Titan no Metsubou
Hi no Tori Hououhen: Gaou no Bouken
Higemaru Makaijima – Nanatsu no Shima Daiboken
Highway Star
Hirake! Ponkikki
Hiryu no Ken
Hiryu no Ken II
Hiryu no Ken III: 5 Nin no Ryuu Senshi
Hiryu no Ken Special: Fighting Wars
Hissatsu Doujou Yaburi
Hissatsu Shigotojin
Hitler no Fukkatsu: Top Secret
Hogan’s Alley
Hokkaidou Rensa Satsujin: Ohotsuku ni Kiyu
Hokuto no Ken
Hokuto no Ken 2
Hokuto no Ken 3
Hokuto no Ken 4
Holy Diver
Home Run Night
Home Run Night ’90
Honmei
Honoo no Doukyuuji: Dodge Danpei
Honoo no Doukyuuji: Dodge Danpei 2
Honshougi: Naitou Kudan Shougi Hiden
Hook
Hoshi no Kirby: Yume no Izumi no Monogatari
Hoshi wo Miru Hito
Hostages
Hototogisu
Hottaman no Chitei Tanken
Houma ga Koku
Hudson Hawk
Hyakkiyakou
Hyaku no Sekai no Monogatari
Hydlide Special
Hydlide 3
Hyokkori Hyoutan Shima: Nazo no Kaizokusen
Hyper Olympic
Hyper Sports
I Love Softball
Ice Climber
Idemitsu – Space College – Kikenbutsu no Yasashii Butsuri to Kagaku[7]
Ide Yosuke Meijin no Jissen Mahjong
Ide Yosuke Meijin no Jissen Mahjong II
Idol Hakkenden
Igo Meikan
Igo Shinan
Igo Shinan ’91
Igo Shinan ’92
Igo Shinan ’93
Igo Shinan ’94
Igo: Kyu Roban Taikyoku
Ikari
Ikari II
Ikari III
IkeIke! Nekketsu Hockey-bu
Ikinari Musician
Ikki
Image Fight
Inbou no Wakusei: Shankara
Indora no Hikari
Insector X
Ishin no Arashi
Itadaki Street: Watashi no Oten Niyottete
Izaki Shuugorou no Keiba Hisshougaku
J-League Fighting Soccer: The King of Ace Strikers
Datach: J. League Super Top Players
J-League Winning Goal
Jackie Chan
Jajamaru Gekimaden
Jajamaru Ninpou Chou
JaJaMaru no Daibouken
Jangou
Jarin-Ko Chie
Jesus: Kyofu no Bio Monster
The Jetsons: Cogswell’s Caper!
Jigoku Gokuraku Maru
Jikuu (Toki) no Tabibito
Jikuu Yuten Debias
Jongbou
Joust
Joy Mech Fight
JuJu Densetsu
Jumbo Ozaki no Hole in One Professional
Jumpin’ Kid: Jack to Mame no Ki Monogatari
Just Breed
Juuryoku Soukou Metal Storm
Juvei Quest
Jyuouki
Kabushiki Doujou
Kage
Kage no Densetsu
Kagerou Densetsu
Kaguya Hime Densetsu
Kai no Bouken: The Quest of Ki
Kaijuu Monogatari
Kaiketsu Yancha Maru
Kaiketsu Yancha Maru 2: Karakuri Land
Kaiketsu Yanchamaru 3: Taiketsu! Zouringen
Kakefu Kimi no Jump Tengoku
Kame no Ongaeshi
Kamen no Ninja Akakage
Kamen no Ninja Hamaru
Kamen Rider Club
Kamen Rider SD
Karakuri Kengoden Musashi Lord: Karakuri Jin Shissouru
Karaoke Studio
Karaoke Studio Senyou Cassette Vol. 1
Karaoke Studio Senyou Cassette Vol. 2
Karateka
Karnov
Katte ni Shirokuma
Kawa no Nushi Tsuri
Kekkyoku Nankyoku Daibouken
Kero Kero Keroppi no Daibouken
Kero Kero Keroppi no Daibouken 2
Keroppi to Keroriinu no Splash Bomb
Kido Senshi Z-Gundam: Hot Scramble
King Kong 2: Ikari no Megaton Punch
King of Kings
King’s Knight
Kinnikuman: Muscle Tag Match
Kiteretsu Daihyakka
Kitte Rai Da! Gunjin Shougi Nanya Sore?
Klax
Knight Rider
Konami Sports in Seoul
Koufuku o Yobu Game: Dora Dora Dora
Koryu Densetsu Villgust Gaiden
Koshien
Kujaku Ou
Kujaku Ou II
Kunio-Kun no Jidaigeki dayo Zenin Shuugou: Downtown Special
Kunio-Kun no Nekketsu Soccer League
Kurogane Hiroshi no Yosou Daisuki! Kachiuma Densetsu
Kyatto Ninden Teyandee
Kyonshis 2
Kyorochan Land
Kyoryu Sentai Zyuranger
Kyouto Hana no Misshitsu Satsujin Jiken – Yamamura Misa Suspense
Kyouto Ryuu no Tera Satsujin Jiken – Yamamura Misa Suspense
Kyouto Zaiteku Satsujin Jiken Yamamura Misa Suspense
Kyuukyoku Harikiri Koshien
Kyuukyoku Harikiri Stadium
Kyuukyoku Harikiri Stadium ’88
Kyuukyoku Harikiri Stadium Heisei Gannenhan
Kyuukyoku Harikiri Stadium III
Kyuukyoku Tiger
L’Empereur
Labyrinth
Lagrange Point
Last Armageddon
Law of the West
Layla
Little Magic
Little Mermaid
Lode Runner
Lord of King
Lost Word of Jenny
Lot Lot
Lunar Ball
Lupin III Sansei: Pandora No Isan
Mach Rider
Mad City
Magic Candle
Magic Darts
Magic John
Magical Taruruto-Kun: Fantastic World!!
Magical Taruruto-Kun 2: Magical Adventure
Magical Kids Doropi
MagMax
Magnum Kiki Ippatsu: Empire City 1931
MahaRaja
Mahjong
Mahjong Club Nagatacho: Sousaisen
Mahjong Taikai
Mahjong Taisen
Mahou no Princess Minkiimomo Remember Dream
Maison Ikkoku
Majaventure – Mahjong Senki
Majou Densetsu II: The Maze of Galious
Major League
Makai-Mura
Maniac Mansion
Mappy
Mappy Kids
Mappy-Land
Mario Bros.
Mario Open Golf
Marusa no Onna
Mashin Eiyuden Wataru Gaiden
Mashou
Masuzoe Kaname Icchou Made Famicom
Matendo Douji
Matsumoto Akira no Kabushiki Hisshougaku
Matsumoto Akira no Kabushiki Hisshougaku II
Max Warrior
Meiji Ishin
Meikyuu Kumikyoku
Meikyuu Shima
Meimon! Daisan Yakyuubu
Meimon! Tako Nishiouendan
Meitantei Holmes: Kiri no London Satsujin Jiken
Meitantei Holmes: M-Kara no Chousenjou
Melville no Honoo
Metal Flame: Psybuster
Metal Gear
Metal Max
Metal Slader Glory
Metro Cross
Mezase! Top Pro: Green ni Kakeru Yume
Mickey Mouse
Mickey Mouse III: Yume Fuusen
Might and Magic Book One: The Secret of the Inner Sanctum
Mighty Bomb Jack
Mighty Final Fight
Millipede
Mindseeker
Minelvaton Saga: Ragon no Fukkatsu
Mini-Putt
Minna no Tabou no Nakayoshi Daisakusen
Miracle Ropitt: 2100-Nen no Daiboken
Mirai Senshi Raios
Mirai Shinwa Jarvas
Mississippi Satsujin Jiken
Mitokoumon
Mitokoumon II: Sekai Manyuuki
Mitsume ga Tooru
Mizushima Shinji no Daikoushien
Moai-Kun
Moe-Pro! Saikyou Hen
Moero TwinBee
Moero!! Judo Warriors
Moero!! Junior Basket
Moero!! Pro Soccer
Moero!! Pro Tennis
Moero!! Pro Yakyuu
Moero!! Pro Yakyuu ’88
Moero!! Pro Yakyuu ’90: Kandouhen
Moeru! Oniisan
Mokushi Pachi Pro: Pachi Otto-Kun
Momotaro Densetsu
Momotarou Densetsu Gaiden
Momotaro Dentetsu
Money Game
Money Game II: Kabutochou no Kiseki
Monopoly
Monster Maker: Nanatsu no Hiho
Moon Crystal
Morita Shougi
Mother
Motocross Champion
Mottomo Abunai Deka
Mouryou Senki Madara
Murder Club
Musashi no Boken
Musashi no Ken – Tadaima Shugyo Chu
My Life My Love: Boku no Yume: Watashi no Negai
Nagagutsu o Haita Neko: Sekai Isshu 80 Nichi Dai Boken
Nakajima Satoru: F-1 Hero
Nakajima Satoru F-1 Hero 2
Nakayo Shito Issho
Namco Classic
Namco Classic II
Namco Mahjong III: Mahjong Tengoku
Nantettatte!! Baseball
Nantettatte Baseball KO Game Cassette ’91 Kaimakuban
Nantettatte Baseball KO Game Set OB All Star Hen
Napoleon Senki
Navy Blue
Nekketsu Kakutou Densetsu
Nekketsu Kouha Kunio Kun
Nekketsu Koukou Dodge Ball Bu
Nekketsu Koukou Dodgeball-bu Soccer-hen
Nekketsu Street Basket: Ganbare Dunk Heroes
New Ghostbusters 2
New York Nyankies
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 4 Nen (Ge)[8][9][10]
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 4 Nen (Jou)
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 5 Nen (Ge)
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 5 Nen (Jou)
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 6 Nen (Ge)
NHK Gakuen – Space School – Sansu 6 Nen (Jou)
Nichibutsu Mahjong III
Niji no Silkroad
Ningen Heiki Dead Fox
Ninja Cop Saizou
Ninja Crusaders
Ninja Hattori-kun
Ninja JaJaMaru-kun
Ninja Jajamaru: Ginga Daisakusen
Ninja Kun
Ninja Kun: Ashura no Shou
Ninja Ra Hoi!
Ninja Ryuukenden
Ninja Ryuukenden II
Ninja Ryuukenden III
Nippon Ichi no Meikantoku
Nishimura Kyoutarou Mystery: Blue Train Satsujin Jiken
Nishimura Kyoutarou Mystery: Super Express Satsujin Jiken
Nobunaga no Yabou: Bushou Fuuunroku
Nobunaga no Yabou: Sengouku Gunyuuden
Nobunaga no Yabou: Zenkokuban
North and South
Nuts & Milk
Obake no Q Tarou: Wan Wan Panic
Obocchamakun
Ochinnitoshi Puzzle Tonjan!?
Oeka Kids – Anpanman no Hiragana Daisuki
Oeka Kids – Anpanman to Oekaki Shiyou
Oishinbo: Kyukyoku no Menu 3bon Syoubu
Olympus no Tatakai
Onyanko Town
Operation Wolf
Osomatsu-Kun: Back to Zami no Deppa
Otaku no Seiza
Outlanders
Over Horizon
Paaman
Paaman Part 2
Pac-Land
Pac-Man
Pachicom
Pachi-Slot Adventure 2
Pachi-Slot Adventure 3: Bitaoshii 7 Kenzan!
Pachinko Daisakusen
Pachinko Daisakusen 2
Pachiokun 2
Pachiokun 3
Pachiokun 4
Pachiokun 5
Palamedes
Palamedes 2
Paperboy
Parareru World
Parasol Henbee
Paris-Dakar Rally Special
Parodius Da! -Shinwa kara Owarai e-
Peepar Time
Penguin-Kun Wars
Perfect Bowling
Photon: The Ultimate Game on Planet Earth
Pinball
Pinball Quest
Pizza Pop
Plasma Ball
Pocket Zaurus: Ju Ouken no Nazo
Pooyan
Popeye
Popeye no Eigo Asobi
Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken
Power Blazer
Power Soccer
Predator
President no Sentaku
Pro Yakyuu Family Stadium
Pro Yakyuu Family Stadium ’87
Pro Yakyuu Family Stadium ’88
Pro Yakyuu Satsujin Jiken!
Punch-Out!!
Puyo Puyo
Puzslot
Puzznic
Pajama Hero Nemo
Pyokotan no Daimeiro
Quarterback Scramble
Quarth
Quinty
Quiz Project Q: Cutie Project & Battle 1000
Racer Mini Yonku: Japan Cup
Radia Senki: Reimeihen
Raf World
Raid on Bungeling Bay
Rainbow Island: The Story of Bubble Bobble 2
Rambo
Rampart
Rasaru Ishii no Childs Quest
Recca – Summer Carnival ’92
Red Arremer II
Reigen Doushi
Ripple Island
Road Fighter
Robocco Wars
RoboCop
RoboCop 2
Robot Block
Robot Gyro
Rockman
Rockman 2: Dr. Wily no Nazo
Rockman 3: Dr. Wily no Saigo!?
Rockman 4: Aratanaru Yabo!!
Rockman 5: Blues no Wana!?
Rockman 6: Shijo Saidai no Tatakai!!
Rokudenashi Blues
Rollerball
Rolling Thunder
Route 16 Turbo
Royal Blood
RPG Jinsei Game
Sensha Senryaku: Sabaku no Kitsune
Saikoushi Sedi
Saint Seiya
Saint Seiya 2
Saiyuuki World
Saiyuuki World 2
Sakigake!! Otokojuku
Salad no Kuni no Tomato Hime
Salamander
San Goku Shi
San Goku Shi II
San Goku Shi: Chuugen no Hasha
San Goku Shi II: Haou no Tairiku
Sanada Juu Yuushi
Sanma no Meitantei
Sanrio Carnival
Sanrio Carnival 2
Sanrio Cup: Pon Pon Volley
Sansara Naga
Sansu 1-nen: Keisan Game
Sansu 2-nen: Keisan Game
Sansu 3-nen: Keisan Game
Sansu 4-nen: Keisan Game
Sansu 5+6-nen: Keisan Game
Satomi Hakkenden
Satsui no Kaisou
SD Battle Oozumou
SD Gundam Gachapon Senshi 2: Capsule Senki
SD Gundam Gachapon Senshi 3: Eiyuu Senki
SD Gundam Gachapon Senshi 4: New Type Story
SD Gundam Gachapon Senshi 5: Battle of Universal Century
SD Gundam Gaiden: Knight Gundam Monogatari
SD Gundam Gaiden: Knight Gundam Monogatari 2: Hikari no Kishi
SD Gundam Gaiden: Knight Gundam Monogatari 3
Datach: SD Gundam: Gundam Wars
SD Hero Soukessen: Taose! Aku no Gundan
SD Keiji Blader
SD Sengoku Bushou Retsuden: Rekka no Gotoku Tenka o Nusure!
Seicross
Seikima II Akuma no Gyakushu!
Seirei Densetsu Lickle
Seirei Gari
Sekiryuou
Senjo no Ookami
Shadow Brain
Shadowgate
Shanghai
Shanghai II
Sherlock Holmes: Hakushaku Reijo Yukai Jiken
Shikinjo
Shin 4-Jin Uchi Mahjong: Yakuman Tengoku
Shin Moero!! Pro Yakyuu
Shin Satomi Hakken-Den – Hikari to Yami no Tatakai
Shinjinrui
Shinsenden
Shougi Meikan ’92
Shougi Meikan ’93
Shogun
Shonen Ashibe Nepal Daibouken no Maki
Shuffle Fight
Shufflepuck Café
Side Pocket
Silva Saga
Sky Destroyer
Sky Kid
Snow Bros.
Soccer
Softball Tengoku
Solomon no Kagi
Solomon no Kagi 2
Solstice
SonSon
Soreike! Anapanman Minna de Hiking Game
Space Harrier
Space Hunter
Space Invaders
Space Shadow
Spartan X
Spartan X 2
Spelunker
Spelunker II: Yusha e no Chosen
Splatterhouse: Wanpaku Graffiti
Spot
Spy vs. Spy
Spy vs. Spy II: Nankoku Shirei!!
Sqoon
Square no Tom Sawyer
Star Force
Star Luster
Star Soldier
Star Wars
Star Wars
Star Wars: Teikoku no Gyakushuu
Stargate
STED: Iseki Wakusei no Yabou
Stick Hunter
Sugoro Quest: Dice no Senshi Tachi
Suikoden: Tenmei no Chikai
Sukeban Deka III
Super Arabian
Super Black Onyx
Super Chinese
Super Chinese 2
Super Chinese 3
Super Contra
Super Dynamix Badminton
Super Mario Bros.
Super Mario Bros. 3
Super Mario USA
Super Mogura Tataki!! Pokkun Mogura
Super Momotaro Dentetsu
Super Pinball
Super Pitfall
Super Real Baseball ’88
Super Rugby
Super Sprint
Super Star Force: Jikureki no Himitsu
Super Star Pro Wrestling
Super Xevious: GAMP no Nazo
Superman
SWAT: Special Weapons and Tactics
Sweet Home
Sword Master
Tag Team Pro Wrestling
Taito Basketball
Taito Chase H.Q.
Taito Grand Prix: Eikou heno License
Taiyou no Shinden Asteka II
Taiyou no Yuusha Firebird
Takahashi Meijin no Boken Jima
Takahashi Meijin no Boken Jima II
Takahashi Meijin no Boken Jima III
Master Takahashi’s Adventure Island IV
Takahashi Meijin no Bug-tte Honey
Takeda Shingen
Takeda Shingen II
Takeshi no Chosenjo
Takeshi no Sengoku Fuunji
Tamura Teruaki no Mahjong Seminar
Tanigawa Koji no Shougi Shinan II
Tanigawa Koji no Shougi Shinan III
Tantei Jinguji Saburo: Yokohamakou Renzoku Satsujin Jiken
Tantei Jinguji Saburo: Toki no Sugiyuku Mama Ni
Tao
Tashiro Masashi no Princess ga Ippai
Tatakae! Cho Robot Seimeitai Transformers: Convoy no Nazo
Tatakai no Banka
Tatake!! Ramen-Man
Tecmo Bowl
Tecmo Super Bowl
Tecmo World Cup Soccer r
(for TMNT 1, see Gekikame Ninja Den)
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Super Kame Ninja (= TMNT 2)
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 2: The Manhattan Project (= TMNT 3)
Tenchi o Kurau
Tenchi o Kurau II
Tenkaichi Bushi Keru Naguuru
Tennis
Terao no Dosukoi Oozumou
Terminator 2
Terra Cresta
Tetra Star
Tetris
Tetris 2 + Bombliss
Tetris Flash
Tetsudou-Oh
Tetsuwan Atom
Thexder
Thunderbirds
Tiger-Heli
Time Zone
Times of Lore
Tiny Toon Adventures
Tiny Toon Adventures 2: Montana Land e Yokoso
Titan
TM Network: Live in Power Bowl
Tobidase Daisakusen 2: JJ
Tokkyu Shirei Solbrain
Tokoro-san no Mamoru mo Semeru mo
Tokyo Pachi-Slot Adventure
Tom & Jerry
Tom Sawyer no Bouken
Top Gun
Top Gun: Dual Fighters
Top Rider
Top Striker
Totsuzen! Macho Man
Touch Down Fever: American Football
Touhou Kenbunku
Tokaido Gojusan-tsugi
Toukon Club
The Tower of Druaga
The Triathlon
Tsuppari Oozumou
Tsuppari Wars
Tsurikichi Sanpei
Tsuru Pikahage Maru: Mezase! Tsuruseko no Akashi
Twin Eagle: Revenge Joe’s Brother
TwinBee
TwinBee 3
Uchuu Keibitai SDF
Uchusen: Cosmo Carrier
Ultima
Ultima: Seisha he no Michi
Ultraman Club Kaijuu Dai Kessen!!
Datach: Ultraman Club: Supokon Fight!
Ultraman Club 2: Kaettekita Ultraman Club
Ultraman Club 3
The Untouchables
Urban Champion
Urusei Yatsura: Lum’s Wedding Bell
US Championship V’Ball
USA Ice Hockey in FC
Ushio to Tora: Shin’en no Daiyo
Utsurun Desu.: Kawauso Hawaii e Iku!!!
Valkyrie no Boken: Toki no Kagi Densetsu
Valis: The Fantasm Soldier
Vegas Connection: Casino Kara Ai wo Komete
Venus Senki
Viva Las Vegas
Volguard II
Wagyan Land
Wagyan Land 2
Wagyan Land 3
Wai Wai World
Wai Wai World 2: SOS!! Parsley Jo
Wanpaku Duck Yume Bouken
Wanpaku Kokkun no Gourmet World
Wario no Mori
Warpman
Western Kids
White Lion Densetsu
Wild Gunman
Willow
Wily & Right no RockBoard: That’s Paradise
Wing of Madoola
Winners Cup
Wit’s
Wizardry: Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord
Wizardry II: Legacy of Llylgamyn – The Third Scenario
Wizardry III: Knight of Diamonds – The Second Scenario
Woody Poko
World Boxing
World Grand-Prix – Pole To Finish
World Super Tennis
Wrecking Crew
WWF WrestleMania Challenge
Xevious
Yie Ar Kung Fu
Yoshi no Cookie
Yoshi no Tamago
Yokai Dochuki
Youkai Club
Yousei Monogatari RodLand
Ys
Ys II
Ys III: Wanderers from Ys
Yume Penguin Monogatari
Datach: YuYu Hakusho: Bakuto Ankoku Bujutsu Kai
Zelda no Densetsu 1
Zenbei!! Pro Basketball

Famicom Disk System (FDS) Games

19 – Neunzehn
Adian no Tsue
Ai Senshi Nicol
Akumajōu Dracula
Akū Senki Raijin
All Night Nippon Super Mario Bros.
All One
Apple Town Story
The Miracle of Almana
Aspic – Majaō no Noroi
Backgammon
Bakutōshi Patton-Kun
Baseball
Big Challenge! Dogfight Spirit
Big Challenge! Go! Go! Bowling
Big Challenge! Gun Fighter
Big Challenge! Judo Senshuken
Bio Miracle-I’m Upa
Bio Miracle Bokutte Upa
Bomberman
Breeder
Bubble Bobble
BurgerTime
Chitei Tairiku Ordola
Cursed Treasure of Cleopatra
Clox
Clu Clu Land: Welcome to New Clu Clu Land
Cocona World
Dandy: Zeuon No Fukkatsu
Dead Zone
Deep Dungeon
Dig Dug
Dig Dug II
Dirty Pair: Project Eden
Donkey Kong
Donkey Kong Jr.
Doremikko
Dr. Chaos
Dracula II: Noroi no Fūin
Druid: Kyōfu no Tobira
Eggerland
Eggerland – Departure to Creation
Electrician
Esper Dream
Exciting Baseball
Exciting Basketball
Exciting Billiard
Exciting Soccer: Konami Cup
Fairytale
Falsion
Famicom Grand Prix: F-1 Race
Famicom Grand Prix II: 3D Hot Rally
Famicom Detective Club: The Missing Heir (first part)
Famicom Detective Club: The Missing Heir (second part)
Famicom Detective Club Part II: The Girl who Stands Behind (first part)
Famicom Detective Club Part II: The Girl who Stands Behind (second part)
Family Composer
Family Computer Othello
Final Command: The Red Fortress
Fire Bam
Fire Rock
Fūun Shōrin Ken
Fūun Shōrin Ken: Ankoku no Maō
Gall Force: Eternal Story
Galaga
Galaxian
German Tanteidan: Marine-gumi Jaaman Tanteidan: Matonarikumi Jaaman Tanteidan Marine Kumi: Maruhi Jigoma Sousa File
Ginga Denshō: Galaxy Odyssey
Gokuraku Yūgi: Game Tengoku
Golf
Golf Japan Course
Golf U.S. Course
The Goonies
Green Beret
Gun.Smoke
Gyruss
Halley Wars
Hao’s Mysterious Journey
Hikari Genji: Roller Panic
Hikari Shinwa: Palthena no Kagami
Hong Kong
I am a Teacher: Super Mario no Sweater
I am a Teacher: Teami no Kiso
Ice Climber
Ice Hockey
Igo: Kyū Roban Taikyoku
Ishido: The Way of Stones
Janken Disk Jō
Jikai Shounen Mettomag
The Return of Mario Bros.
Kamen Rider Black: Taiketsu Shadow Moon
Karate Champ
Kattobi! Dōji
Kick and Run
Kick Challenger: Air Foot
Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor
Kiki Kaikai: Dotō Hen
Kieta Princess
Kinnikuman: Kinniku-Sei Ōi Sōdatsusen
Knight Lore
Knight Move
Konami Ice Hockey
Konami Tennis
A Kitten’s Story: The Adventures of Chatran
The Legend of Zelda
The Legend of Zelda 2: The Adventure of Link
Lutter
Magma Project: Hacker
Mahjong
Mahjong Kazoku
Märchen Veil
Matō no Hōkai: The Hero of Babel
Meikyū Jiin Dababa
Metroid
Michael English Daibōken
Moero Twinbee: Cinnamon Hakase wo Sukue!
Monitor Puzzle, The: Kineco – Kinetic Connection
Monitor Puzzle, The: Kineco Vol. II – Kinetic Connection
Monty no Doki Doki Daisassō: Monty on the Run
Moonball Magic
Mr. Gold: Tōyama no Kinsan in Space
Nakayama Miho no Tokimeki High School
Namida no Sōkoban Special
Nanking no Adventure
Nazo no Kabe: Block Kuzushi
Nazo no Murasame Jō
Nazoler Land
Nazoler Land Dai 2 Gō
Nazoler Land Dai 3 Gō
Nazoler Land Special
Omoikkiri Tanteidan Haado Gumi: Matenrō no Chōsenjō
Otocky
Pac-Man
Pachicom
Pachinko Grand Prix
Panic Space
Pinball
Pro Golfer Saru: Kage no Tournament
Professional Mahjong Goku
Pulsar no Hikari: Space Wars Simulation
Pro Wrestling: Famicom Wrestling Association
Putt Putt Golf
Puyo Puyo
Puzzle Boys
Radical Bomber!! Jirai Kun
Reflect World
Relics: Ankoku Yōsai
Replicart
Risa no Yōsei Densetsu: Risa Tachibana
Roger Rabbit
Samurai Sword
Santa Claus no Takarabako
SD Gundam World: Gachapon Senshi – Scramble Wars
SD Gundam World: Gachapon Senshi – Scramble Wars Map Collection
Section Z
Seiken: Psycho Calibur
Shin Onigashima (Disk 1)
Shin Onigashima (Disk 2)
Smash Ping Pong
Soccer
Solomon no Kagi
Suishō no Dragon
Super Boy Allan
Super Lode Runner
Super Lode Runner II
Super Mario Bros.
Super Mario Bros. 2 (different from US version)
Sword of Kalin
Silviana
Tama & Friends: Great 3rd Street Adventure
Tanigawa Kōji no Shōgi Shinan II
Tanigawa Kōji no Shōgi Shinan II – Shinban
Tantei Jingūji Saburo: Kiken na Ninin (first part)
Tantei Jingūji Saburo: Kiken na Ninin (second part)
Tantei Jingūji Saburo: Shinjuku Chūō Kōen Satsujin Jiken
Tarot
Tennis
Time Twist: Rekishi no Katasumi de… (first part)
Time Twist: Rekishi no Katasumi de… (second part)
Titanic Mystery (Ao no Senritsu)
Tobidase Daisakusen
Topple Zip
Transformers: The Headmasters
TwinBee
Ultraman: Kaijū Teikoku no Gyakushū
Ultraman 2: Shutsugeki Katoku Tai
Ultraman Club: Chikyū Dakkan Sakusen
Volleyball
Vs. Excitebike
Wardner no Mori
Winter Games
Wrecking Crew
Xevious
Yōkai Yashiki
Yume Kōjō: Doki Doki Panic
Yū Maze
Yūshi no Monshō
Yūyūki (first part)
Yūyūki (second part)
Zanac

There are probably mistakes on this page. Sorry.

Things I Forgot

There are so many topics to discuss. It would be very difficult to cover 100%. Let’s briefly mention a few of the things I forgot to mention.

 

Multiplication and Division

SNES has hardware to perform multiplication and division. Actually, it has 2 ways to do multiplication. You can look at my EasySNES code to find examples of these (link below, search for multiply: and divide:). They are a little slow, so you can’t expect to do this 100x a frame. You have to wait a several cycles before you get a result for the regular multipy and divide functions (see the NOP opcodes, which do nothing but wait).

If you aren’t using Mode 7, there is a second multiply function (signed) which is much faster. It’s called multiply_fast: in this link.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_00/blob/master/easySNES.asm

Any other higher level math will have to be done with LUTs (look up tables), precalculated byte arrays.

 

Development Cart

I have a Super Everdrive, made by Krikzz, from Ukraine. And, ooh, they even have one that supports the SuperFX chip. I wish I had that one.

https://krikzz.com/store/home/54-fxpak-pro.html

Well, this one is over $200 US, but the basic model is less than $100, and it is well worth it. It works great. It uses a MicroSD card to hold the game ROMs.

 

Mode 7

This is the big enchilada, but I haven’t quite figured out this mode. Especially, setting up a tool chain for editing. Mode 7 can stretch and zoom and rotate. Many of the coolest SNES games use this in some way. It’s just currently above my skill level.

I do plan to work on this in the future. I might even make my own tools. But, that might be months, or even years from now.

 

IRQ Timers

This is for timing mid screen events. You should try to use HDMA instead. If all 8 HDMA channels are being used, you could do a 9th thing with IRQ timers.

You need to enable IRQ timers (probably just the V timer). and CLI to enable IRQs on the CPU. And you need to add code to the IRQ handler. Once set, the counter will trigger an IRQ signal once the PPU reaches a specific scanline. H counter would fire an IRQ signal every scanline, and you probably don’t want that.

 

Enhancement Chips

Another thing that is a bit over my head. The SA-1 chip is just a much faster 65816 chip, and that might be the easiest to use.

Some chip names = DSP1, DSP1A, DSP1B, DSP2, DSP3, DSP4, GSU1 (aka MarioChip1 aka SuperFX), GSU2, GSU2-SP1, OBC1, SA-1, S-DD1, S-RTC, SPC7110, ST010, ST011, ST018, CX4.

Some of the functions they do…

decompression code

trigonometry functions

image zooming and rotation

converting bitmaps to tiles

drawing vector graphics, triangles

real time clock

enemy AI functions (probably wouldn’t be useful to you)

.

The cool chip is the SuperFX chip (GSU). That’s what StarFox used. It would be nice if I could figure it out, and explain it. But, I can not.

 

Other Modes

Hi resolution. Modes 5 and 6 are double horizontal resolution. They can also, optionally, do an interlaced mode which doubles vertical resolution. Very few games used hi resolution.

Offset per tile Modes 2 and 4. I need to investigate these a bit more. I don’t want to put incorrect information here.

 

SRAM

For LoROM, SRAM is mapped to banks $70–$7D in the $0000-$7FFF addresses. And also in the $FE-$FF banks in the $0000-$7FFF addresses. (7e and 7f banks are the WRAM, so that couldn’t be used for SRAM). That gives a total possible 512kB SRAM (battery backed save RAM).

HiROM, as usual, is completely different.

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Super_NES_Programming/SNES_memory_map

You will also need to indicate in the header that the ROM is using SRAM. I think that’s mapped to $FFD7, but it’s this line in the header.asm file

.byte $00 ; backup RAM size

The value is (2^# in kB). 3 is 8kB, 4 is 16kB, 5 is 32kB, 6 is 64kB, 7 is 128 kB, 8 is 256kB, and 9 is 512kB. 0 means 0kB.

Oh, and the previous line, mapped to $FFD6, should have the d1 bit (0000 0010) set. To indicate a battery for the SRAM.

Once you have correctly set this, the emulator should automatically be creating SRAM save files, that persist after power off. You can freely read and write to this anytime, and you can save your game by keeping the progress stored in the SRAM.

 

SNES main page

Color Math

SNES programming tutorial. Example 12.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_12

 

What is color math? If you’ve ever worked with Photoshop, it would be like blending 2 different layers. In this case the layers are the MAIN screen and the SUB screen. Everything we have done so far deals with the MAIN screen. So let me try to explain the SUB screen.

All that stuff that the SNES does to produce a picture, putting layers on top of each other, tile priorities, sprite priorities, etc… it does all that TWICE. If you set the settings for the MAIN screen exactly the same as the settings for the SUB screen, it would produce the exact same picture TWICE… with 1 difference.  The main screen uses color index zero as the backdrop color (any pixel that is transparent), and the sub screen uses the “fixed color” as the backdrop color (register $2132).

You would never see the SUB screen, unless you turned on the color math registers, which would then blend the 2 pictures together, using either addition or subtraction. And then there is an optional halving step after that. Each pixel on the screen, the R values are added or subtracted, and the G value, then the B value. That value is clamped to the max and min without overflow. (each RBG value is 0-31)

Let’s say we have it set to ADD. And the main screen pixel is gray 15,15,15, and the sub screen pixel is dark red 10,0,0. The final pixel would be 25,15,15.

If we added the HALF option, each value would shift right once (rounding down), giving a final pixel of 12,7,7.

If we set the color math to SUBTRACT (no halving), the final pixel would be 5,15,15. The RGB values of the sub screen are subtracted from the RBG values on the main screen.

If we added the HALF option, each value would shift right once (rounding down), giving a final pixel of 2,7,7.

Note, any pixel in the sub screen that is transparent will not be halved.

The main use for Color Math is for transparency effects. You will want Adding and Halving. That would equally blend the main and sub screen.

The least useful setting is the subtract and halving. That would just produce a very dark picture, and almost no games used this.

.

There is a completely different kind of color math operation, that uses ONLY the fixed color. That color is applied to the entire MAIN screen, and if halving is set, it will work for the whole screen. If you set the fixed color register to green, and had the color math set to ADD, it would add a green tint to the screen.

The fixed color register is weird. The wiki example suggest writing each color separately to it (3 writes for R,B, and G). However, you could set them all to a specific value with 1 write. Such as LDA #$E0, STA $2132 would set all fixed colors to zero.

Before we dive into the code, here’s a video. You can probably skip most of this video, which goes into too many details about how the 2 different screens are generated.

 

Example ROM

I put BG1 on the main screen (gray rocks) and BG2 on the sub screen (color bars).

No effect. Color Math disabled.

SNES_12_000

 

Just the Sub screen. (seen by setting the “clipping always to black” bits in the color math logic, and adding the sub screen).

SNES_12_006

Note, the top left is black (non-zero index). The bottom left is zero index (transparent).  The sub screen will show the “fixed color” (register 2132) where there is transparent. Right now the fixed color is black. Color halving will not work for a transparent pixel on the sub screen. If you notice, the bottom left square will not change at all for these examples, even when halving is indicated.

 

Color Math Adding.

SNES_12_001

 

Color Math Adding and Halving.

SNES_12_002

 

Color Math Subtracting.

SNES_12_003

 

Color Math Subtracting and Halving.

SNES_12_004

 

Fixed color only (red at 50%), Color Math Adding.

SNES_12_005

 

Here’s a YouTube video of the Example code.

 

Example Code

$2130 
ccmm--sd
cc = main screen black if... *
--mm---- = prevent color math if... *
------0- = fixed color
------1- = sub screen
d is for an unrelated thing

* 00 => Never
  01 => Outside Color Window only
  10 => Inside Color Window only
  11 => Always

$2131
shbo4321
0------- add
1------- subtract
-0------ normal
-1------ result is halved
b = backdrop, o = sprites, 4321 = layers enabled for color math

 

So let’s go over each examples.

1- no effect, turn off color math

lda #$30 ; = off
sta color_add_sel ; $2130
;and make sure fixed color is black
lda #$e0 ; RGB, value = 0
sta color_fixed ; $2132

2- adding

lda #$02 ; color math with subscreen
sta color_add_sel ; $2130

;adding, not half, affect all layers 
lda #$3f
sta color_add_des ; $2131

3- adding and half, same as last one, just add one bit to the 2131 write

;adding, half, affect all layers 
lda #$7f
sta color_add_des ; $2131

4- subtracting

lda #$02 ; color math with subscreen
sta color_add_sel ; $2130

;subtracting, not half, affect all layers 
lda #$bf
sta color_add_des ; $2131

5- subtracting and half. Same as last one, but add one bit to the 2131 write

;subtract, half, affect all layers	
lda #$ff
sta color_add_des ; $2131

6- fixed color only

;turn on color math, fixed color mode
lda #$00
sta color_add_sel ; $2130

;adding, not half, affect all layers 
lda #$3f
sta color_add_des ; $2131

;set the fixed color to red 50%
lda #$2f ;red at 50%
sta color_fixed ; $2132

We could have also set half mode.

7- see just the sub screen. We did this by setting the “always clip main screen to black” bits in 2130, and then adding the sub screen to the now completely black main screen.

lda #$c2 ;= clip main always to black
sta color_add_sel ; $2130

;adding, not half, affect all layers 
lda #$3f
sta color_add_des ; $2131

 

Other examples

Color math only affects some sprites. Only sprites that use palettes 4-7 are affected by color math. That is why Mario (and the little ghosts) are solid.

Super Mario World (USA)_006

Windowing can affect where the color math applies. With HDMA adjusting the window, you can make some cool effects.

Contra III - The Alien Wars (USA)_000

Metroid1

Super Mario World (USA)_008

 

Tint the whole screen (adding a fixed color)… actually, upon further investigation, this is subtracting, which makes the screen slightly darker than the original. Also, the COLOR MATH is not in fixed color mode, it’s in subscreen mode, but NOTHING is enabled on the subscreen, so the subscreen is filled with the backdrop color (which for the sub screen is the fixed color). I guess that works too.

Legend of Zelda, The - A Link to the Past (USA)_000

 

Smooth Transparencies (add and halving). This is the most common transparency effect on the SNES.

Legend of Zelda, The - A Link to the Past (USA)_001

Sparkster, the water.

Sparkster (USA)_000

 

And creating shadows (subtracting) Mortal Kombat II. It’s hard to tell, but their shadows are created by color math subtraction. You could also give the appearance of clouds moving overhead by subtracting a cloud shape and having it scroll.

Mortal Kombat II (USA)_000

 

Links.

http://www.romhacking.net/documents/428/

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/transparency

 

SNES main page

HDMA Examples

SNES programming tutorial. Example 11.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_11

 

HDMA is a way to write to PPU registers while the screen is drawing. You can change values at specific scanlines, to create unique effects.

The H is for H-Blank. Remember before, when we talked about V-blank (vertical blank), where the PPU isn’t doing anything for a short while after drawing each screen? Well, it also pauses a VERY SHORT time after drawing each horizontal line. Just long enough for the 8 HDMA channels to quickly change a register or send data, before the screen goes to write the next line.

They work in order, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. They can all write 1 thing (1,2 or 4 bytes) per line. Or you can set them to wait a specific number of lines before changing a value.

HDMA uses the same registers as the DMA registers, and you shouldn’t use both at the same time. You should write zero to HDMA enable ($420c) before performing a DMA. Because the oldest revision of the SNES has a bug where it can crash if they both happen at the same time.

Here’s an interesting video on DMA and HDMA.

 

Examples

Here’s some things you can do with HDMA.

Changing the BG color with HDMA, to create a color gradient.

Batman

 

Changing the Window (there are 2 windows) with HDMA, to block off portions of the screen. The windows have left and right registers, which need to be written every scanline to create these shapes.

Super Mario World (USA)_000

Super Mario World (USA)_003

Mode 7 parameters. (lots of registers to change hundreds of times a frame).

Fzero

.

How HDMA works

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/registers

(for this link, scroll down to 43×0)

When you look at the HDMA registers, it looks like you need to put MORE values than a DMA (DMA uses 4300-4305 for channel 0 and HDMA uses 4300-430a)… but you actually write LESS values. Let’s go over them briefly, then in detail. For channel 0.

4300 – yes
4301 – yes
4302-4 – yes
4305-6 – no
4307 – yes, only if using Indirect Mode.
4308-a – no

4300 - Control Register. da---ttt

D=direction, probably want 0, from CPU to PPU.

A=HDMA mode. 0 for direct, 1 for indirect. More on this later.

TTT = transfer mode, which will vary by which register we use.

000 => 1 register write once (1 byte: p)
001 => 2 registers write once (2 bytes: p, p+1)
010 => 1 register write twice (2 bytes: p, p)
011 => 2 registers write twice each (4 bytes: p, p, p+1, p+1)
100 => 4 registers write once (4 bytes: p, p+1, p+2, p+3)
101 => 2 registers write twice alternate (4 bytes: p, p+1, p, p+1)
110 => 1 register write twice (2 bytes: p, p)
111 => 2 registers write twice each (4 bytes: p, p, p+1, p+1)

4301 – the PPU destination register. 21xx. So if you write $22 here, the HDMA will write to the $2122, the CGRAM Data Register.

4302-4 – the address of the HDMA table. 2=low, 3=middle, 4=upper/bank #.

4307 – if using Indirect HDMA, this is the bank # of the Indirect Addresses.

Anything marked “no”, don’t touch them. They are used by the HDMA hardware.

Then you write the channel (bitfield, each bit represents a channel, 1 for ch0, 2 for ch1, 4 for ch2, 8 for ch3, etc) to $420c, the HDMA enable register. Presumably, you would do this each frame during v-blank.

.

OK, so we are pointing the HDMA registers to a table (byte array). For a direct mode, the table would be a scanline count, then (depending on the TTT mode) 1,2, or 4 bytes to be written. Then another scanline count, then more bytes. Scanline count, bytes. Scanline count, bytes. Etc, until it sees a zero in the scanline count slot. From my own examples…

H_TABLE6:
.byte 32, $0f
.byte 32, $1f
.byte 32, $2f
.byte 32, $4f
.byte 32, $6f
.byte 32, $9f
.byte 32, $ff
.byte 0 ;end

That reads 32 lines, value $0f. 32 lines, value $1f. 32 lines… etc down to the terminating 0. One interesting thing is that the $0f is written immediately at the very top of the screen. THEN it waits 32 lines.

Here’s another example, when the transfer mode is “1 register write twice”.

H_TABLE2:
.byte 10, 0, 0
.byte 10, 1, 0
.byte 10, 2, 0
.byte 10, 3, 0
.byte 10, 4, 0
.byte 10, 5, 0
.byte 10, 6, 0
.byte 10, 7, 0
.byte 10, 8, 0
.byte 10, 9, 0
...etc...
.byte 0 ;end

10 is the scanline count. Then 2 bytes to write. Then 10 scanline count. Then 2 bytes. Etc.

Indirect Mode

43×0 register, we can set it to Indirect. Only with indirect do you need to write to 43×7, the bank of the indirect address. The table will always be sets of 3s. First the scanline count, then an indirect address (ie. pointer) to where our data is. I wrote the HDMA table like this…

H_TABLE5:
.byte 8
.addr $1000
.byte 8
.addr $1002
.byte 8
.addr $1004
.byte 8
.addr $1006
.byte 8
.addr $1008
...etc...
.byte 0 ;end

The .addr directive outputs a 16 bit value, low byte then high byte. I think you could have also used the .word directive. So, 8 is the scanline count, then an indirect address. Our bank byte is $7e, so the first one points to WRAM $7e1000. The second one points to $7e1002. Etc.

One of the advantages of the indirect system is that you can have a repeated pattern that changes.

I had copied the Indirect Table to $7e1000. It looks like this.

IND_TABLE:
.byte 0, 0
.byte 3, 0
.byte 6, 0
.byte 7, 0
.byte 8, 0
.byte 7, 0
.byte 6, 0
.byte 3, 0
.byte 0, 0
.byte $fd, 0
.byte $fa, 0
.byte $f9, 0
.byte $f8, 0
.byte $f9, 0
.byte $fa, 0
.byte $fd, 0
.byte 0,0

All of these are values to be written with HDMA to a PPU register. In this case, a horizontal scroll register, which is write twice (low then high bytes).

This is example 3. I am also shuffling these values every 4 frames, which causes the movement of the the sine wave.

 

Example Code

No effect. HDMA is turned off by writing zero to $420c.

NO_EFFECT

 

Example 1. Changing the BG color.

I’m actually setting up 2 separate HDMA transfers. First to set the CG address to zero. Second to write 2 bytes to change the #0 color. You have to rewrite the address each time, because it auto-increments when writing a color.

stz $4300 ;1 register, write once
lda #$21 ;pal_addr
sta $4301 ;destination
ldx #.loword(H_TABLE1)
stx $4302 ;address
lda #^H_TABLE1
sta $4304 ;address

lda #2
sta $4310 ;1 register, write twice
lda #$22 ;pal_data
sta $4311 ;destination
ldx #.loword(H_TABLE2)
stx $4312 ;address
lda #^H_TABLE2
sta $4314 ;address

lda #3 ;channels 1 and 2
sta hdma_enable ;$420c

And we have 2 HDMA tables (see the example code). Each time we are waiting 10 scanlines between changes. Each time, adding a little more red.

On a side note, you could set this up as a single HDMA channel. With a “2 registers write twice each” mode. You would be doing double writes to the CG address, and you would need 4 bytes after each scanline count.

EFFECT1

 

Example 2. Changing window 1 left and right positions.

A window punches a hole in one or more layer. There are 2 windows, but we only need 1 for this example. The only parameters you can set are left and right (and inverse, and combinations with the other window). But with HDMA, you can adjust the window parameters as the screen draws, and draw a shape. Circle shapes are very popular.

If the left position is > than the right position, the window will not appear. That is what we are doing for the top and the bottom of the screen. You also have to tell it which layers are affected with the $212e (window for main screen) and with the $2123-5 registers.

I’m using 2 HDMA channels, and writing 1 byte to 1 register. To 2126 and 2127.

(Again this could have been done with 1 channel with a 2 register transfer mode).

This example shows the Multi Single Scanline feature. If the scanline count is >128 (not including 128), it signals a series of single scanline writes. You can omit the scanline count for a number of lines (ie. subtract 128 from the scanline count number).

.byte 60, $ff ;first we wait 60 scanlines
.byte $c0 ;192-128 = 64 lines of single entries
.byte $7f ;1st write value
.byte $7e ;2nd write value
.byte $7d ;3rd write value
.byte $7c ;4th write value
...etc...64 lines.
.byte 0 ;end

It waits 1 scanline between each write.

Each line, I am moving the left position and right position further apart, and then closer together, which forms a diamond shape.

EFFECT2

 

Example 3. Changing BG1 horizontal scrolling position.

This was already discussed above, in the Indirect Mode section. We are using a sine wave pattern to create a wave in the picture, writing twice to 1 register, the horizontal scroll of BG1.

I wanted to include at least 1 example of indirect mode. I copied the value table to the RAM, so I was able to change the values to make the pattern move. See the Shuffle_f3 function in the HMDA3.asm file. The table of Indirect Addresses points to the RAM where our actual values are stored.

This example would have been even nicer if we wrote new values every scanline. Currently, we are only changing values every 8 scanlines (to make the table simpler / smaller). Maybe even every 2 scanlines would have been enough.

EFFECT3

 

Example 4. Changing the Mosaic filter.

This is the simplest example. A single write to a single register. I haven’t discussed the Mosaic filter before, $2106 . The upper nibble is the mosaic amount (0 = normal, 1 = 2×2, etc up to $f = 16×16), and the lower nibble says which layers are affected. Sprites are never affected.

stz $4300 ;1 register, write once
lda #$06 ;mosaic
sta $4301 ;destination
ldx #.loword(H_TABLE6)
stx $4302 ;address
lda #^H_TABLE6
sta $4304 ;address

lda #1 ;channel 1
sta hdma_enable ;$420c

It waits 32 lines before increasing the mosaic value. There are bigger squares at the bottom. You probably wouldn’t use this exact HDMA effect in a game, but it is just an example of what is possible. You can change so many settings, even the BG mode $2105, which layers are active, change the location of a tilemap or tileset. I think you can even write new data to the VRAM (a little bit at a time).

EFFECT4

Here’s a YouTube video of these examples.

 

Caution

Because HDMA settings need to be rewritten every frame, this code example would break in a lag frame… like if our game logic ran so long that it took 2 frames to complete one loop. You would have half of the frames missing the HDMA effect.

Therefore, you should put HDMA code inside the NMI code. NMI code is guaranteed to execute every frame, during v-blank. You should also put your DMA code here (copying bytes to the VRAM or OAM). Some games have very elaborate NMI code. I don’t currently have a proper example with HDMA in the NMI code. I’ll put that on my TODO list.

 

Links.

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/dma-and-hdma

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/grog’s-guide-to-dma-and-hdma-on-the-snes

 

SNES main page

SNES Music

SNES programming tutorial. Example 10.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_10

 

Here’s an interesting video on the SPC700 and SNES audio.

 

Today, we are going to talk about SNES music. The APU (Sony SPC700) is a different chip entirely, and has its own 64k of RAM. At the beginning of our program, we need to load the APU with our SPC file. It is an audio program that runs automatically.

The APU is connected to an 8 channel DSP (digital sound processor). The song will direct the DSP to play different sound samples at different rates to make tones. If you are familiar with MIDI, it is similar. The samples can be looped or not. The samples are compressed into a native compression called BRR (bit rate reduction).

BRR samples are very large, and you will probably be only able to fit 10-15 samples. Each will have to be edited (perhaps with Audacity) to less than a second each, and at a reduced sample rate. We are going to work with SNESGSS (written by Shiru). I got the files from here, and from the source code for one of Shiru’s SNES projects.

https://github.com/nathancassano/snesgss

However, don’t use the .exe here. Apparently, there is a bug in the SNES hardware, where if the APU reads a value at the exact moment it is changed, it sometimes reads the wrong value. This can cause the game to crash. See the discussion here…

https://forums.nesdev.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=18096

Calima wrote a bug patch, which I have directly patched into the .exe (now called snesgssP.exe (p for patch). You can get it here…

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_00/tree/master/MUSIC

and also grab the music.asm file. You will need it.

Anyway, the patch works, but it forced me to overwrite something, and I chose to disable the streaming function. I tested this on a real SNES dozens of times with no problems.

.

SNESGSS prefers to have 16-bit MONO WAV samples at sample rate 32000 or 16000. I have tried 8000, but there is no improvement.

There seems to be a bug in Audacity, when you resample to another rate (Tracks/Resample), it seems to work, but then saves it to the original rate. But if you resample it, cut it, and then open a new window and start a new project at the target rate, and then paste it and then save it, it works. I don’t know what’s up with that.

Recording at the desired rate has no problems. 16000 seems to be a nice sweet spot on audio quality and file size.

SNESGSS also suggests tuning the samples to B +21 cents. I did not. I left all my samples at C. They are not in tune with the samples provided with SNESGSS, which I did not use. I think those are tuned to B +21.

SNESGSS3

Hit the WAV button near the middle of the screen to load your samples. Setting the envelopes similar to this seems good (15, 1, 7, 16) You can press the 2x or 4x buttons if you run out of room for files, to downsample by half. You can set a Loop, and adjust the numbers in “from” and “to”… which I find incredibly difficult to use.

I wouldn’t mess with the volume or EQ settings. That is something you should have done in Audacity while editing. Just keep in mind that the SNES tends to weaken the upper range and make bright sounds feel dull. You might have to do a treble boost for the lead instruments.

This tracker will convert our samples to BRR, but not until your final export. Unfortunately, you can’t import BRR samples to it from other sources. You could use other SNESGSS instruments (the ones that Shiru provided, for example).

SNESGSS4

Here you can check the size of all the files. Obliviously, you can’t have a bigger SPC file than 64k, the size of the APU RAM.

I should note, that we only load 1 song in the APU RAM at a time. Staring a new song will load a new song (over the previous song), so that only one song is loaded at any time. That should give you a little flexibility on overall size.

SNESGSS

Here is the main editor. You type Z-M keys for lower octave, Q-P keys for upper octave. You can change the octave by pressing the octave button. So, this is a standard tracker, it goes downward as the song plays.

You can toggle channels on and off by clicking on the word “channel 1”, etc. You can divide things into sections. Press the spacebar to mark the end of a section. Then you can repeat the previous section with an R00 command.

The order of things is Note, Instrument, Volume 0-99, and Special effects. The SP column is for song speed (smaller is faster). You can scroll up and down with PgUp and PgDn keys, and also Home and End goes to the next section.

CTRL+End marks the end of the song, and CTRL+Home marks the loop back point.

You can import Famitracker and MIDI files (notes only), but I haven’t tried.

SNESGSS2

On this page, you can mark a song as a “Sound effect”.

Once the songs are done, you File/Export. And that will produce several files.

spc700.bin is our main SPC file. It holds the program and the samples and the sound effects data.

music_1.bin (one file per song) is the song data.

sounds.asm and sounds.h we don’t need. Don’t include them. This was for a different assembler / C compiler. You might want to look at it to find the value of each sound effect.

.define SFX_DING 0

…tells us that the DING sound effect is called with the value zero.

If you look in

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_10/tree/master/MUSIC

you will see a file called Split.py. This is a python script to split the SPC file into 2 pieces if needed. Let me explain that a bit. We are mapping our SNES game as LoROM, which means that our banks are only 32k. The SPC file could be 64k in size. It needs to be split up to be included without editing the linker file.

Also the music loader function will fail to load correctly if it is >32k. Because of that, I have been copying the SPC file to the 7f0000-7fffff WRAM first, and then calling the INIT function (which copies the SPC file to the APU RAM).

The example code, however, is smaller than 32k, so this step is unnecessary.

 

CODE

Let’s go over the music.asm file, which you should have grabbed from one of my example folders. I had to modify the original code to work with ca65.

spc_init – should be called at the start of the game, with interrupts off (NMI, IRQ, controllers). With AXY16 you load A with the address of the of SPC file (spc700.bin) and X with the bank of the SPC file, and JSL to spc_init.

This is all well and good if the SPC file is < 32k, but if it’s over 32k, and we are mapped as LoROM (ROM banks of 32k), I have had to first copy all the SPC files to $7f0000-7fffff WRAM and then load A with 0000 and X with $7f and then JSL to spc_init.

spc_init expects the SPC file to be contiguous.

SPC file > 32k also means I need to either modify the linker script, or split the SPC file into 2 chunks, and include them into 2 different banks. I decided on the later. You could do this in a hex editor. I wrote a little python script to do the same (Split.py). If you had python3 installed, you would call a command line promt and type “Split.py spc700.bin” and it would split it into 2 files (smaller than 32k).

By the way. Running this function takes a long time. It could take 2 seconds or more.

spc_load_data is an internal function, for loading data to the APU RAM.

spc_play_song loads a song (data) to the APU RAM and then starts playing it. This also should be done with interrupts off. Note that this system only loads one song at a time to the APU RAM. If you have a song in and then load another song, it overwrites the first song.

With AXY16 load A with the address of the song data (ike music_1.bin) and load X with the bank of the song, then JSL to spc_play_song. Once it’s done, it will begin playing the song automatically.

spc_command_asm is an internal function. It’s what sends signals to the APU.

spc_stereo is to set mono (default) or stereo audio. Load A (8 or 16) with 0 for mono, 1 for stereo. Audio channels can be panned left or right.

spc_global_volume is to set the max volume, 0-127. It can also be used to fade in or fade out. One of the variables is called speed, and it is the step value, to go from previous volume to the new volume. 255 is the default speed, which is instant change (any value >= 127 would be instant). Speed of 7 seems nice for a fade, and will take 2 seconds to transition. Don’t give it a speed of zero, the volume won’t change.

AXY8 or AXY16, load A with the speed of volume change (1-255), and load X with the new volume (0-127), then jJSL spc_global_volume.

The SNES has a master volume variable, which affects all channels. That’s what this sets, and doesn’t affect individual channel volumes.

spc_channel_volume sets the max volume for an individual audio channel. AXY8 or AXY16, load A with the channels and load X with the volume (0-127) and the JSL to spc_channel_volume. I’m not sure what circumstances I would use this. Maybe to silence or dim a lead instrument, for a change in dramatic tone.

Note, the channel here is a bitfield, with each bit representing a channel.

0000 0001 = channel 1
0000 0010 = channel 2
0000 0100 = channel 3
0000 1000 = channel 4
0001 0000 = channel 5
0010 0000 = channel 6
0100 0000 = channel 7
1000 0000 = channel 8

For example, LDA #$42 (0100 0010) would effect channels 2 and 7.

music_stop stops the song. JSL here.

music_pause will pause and unpause the song (and not effect the sound effects that are playing). Load A (8 or 16) with 1 for pause and 0 for unpause, then JSL here.

sound_stop_all stops all sounds, song and sound effects. JSL here.

sfx_play_center plays a sound effect, pan center. With AXY8 or AXY16, load A with the # of the sound effect, load X with the max volume of the sound effect (0-127), and load Y with the channel (0-7), the sound effect should play. Channel needs to be higher than the max channel for the song playing. Therefore, you must reserve some empty channels in the song, if you want sound effects to play with it.

sfx_play_left, is the same, but pan left.

sfx_play_right, is the same, but pan right.

sfx_play is an internal function that the 3 above functions call.

Streaming has been removed.

 

EXAMPLE CODE

This is the audio loading code from the example. It was for an SPC file smaller than 32k.

AXY16
;copy music to 7f0000
BLOCK_MOVE (music_code_end-music_code), music_code, $7f0000

;copy the music code and samples to the Audio RAM 
lda #0000
ldx #$7f ;address 7f0000
jsl spc_init

AXY16
lda #$0001
jsl spc_stereo

…and at the bottom we have

.segment "RODATA6"
music_code:
.incbin "MUSIC/spc700.bin"
music_code_end:

.

In another test project, I had an SPC file bigger than 32k. I split the SPC file in half and put then in ROM banks 6 and 7.

.segment "RODATA6"
music_code:
.incbin "MUSIC/spc700_1.bin"

.segment "RODATA7"
music_code2:
.incbin "MUSIC/spc700_2.bin"
music_code2_end:

And the copying to the APU RAM was the same, except that I had 2 move instructions to copy to $7f0000.

;copy music to 7f0000
BLOCK_MOVE $8000, music_code, $7f0000

BLOCK_MOVE (music_code2_end-music_code2), music_code2, $7f8000

;copy the music code and samples to the Audio RAM 
lda #0000
ldx #$7f ;address 7f0000
jsl spc_init

…so that spc_init could load the entire SPC file as one contiguous chunk.

.

Then I load the song, and start it playing (before I turn on NMI interrupts).

AXY16
lda #.loword(song1)
ldx #^song1
jsl spc_play_song

By the way “.loword()” gets a 16 bit value from a 24 bit label. ^ gets the bank of a label.

.

Now I just need to set up a trigger for the sound effect. We already have that yellow block triggering the screen to go dark, so I just snuck in a little more code there. I didn’t want it re-starting the same sound effect over and over and over each frame, so I added a variable to remember the LAST FRAME, if we were over the yellow block, and skip a trigger in that case.

cmp bright_var2 ;compare to last frame
beq Past_Yellow ;skip if last frame is true

AXY8
lda #0 ;= ding
ldx #127 ;= volume
ldy #6 ; = channel
jsl sfx_play_center

Our song plays from channels 1-4 (ie. 0-3), and our sound effect uses 2 channels, so we could have set this to 4,5, or 6. This function is zero based index, ie. values 0-7. So 6 means it will play on channels 7 and 8. Sorry for flip flopping between zero based and one based numbers. Hope this isn’t too confusing.

However, if we loaded X with 0,1,2, or 3. It would not play. If we loaded X with 7, only the first channel of the sound effect would play.

 

Here’s a picture of the demo again. It looks the same as the previous example.

Example09

Here’s a Youtube video, if you want to hear it.

 

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/spc700-reference

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/bit-rate-reduction-(brr)

.

There are other programs for getting music onto a Super Nintendo.

You could use SNESMOD with OpenMPT. I still need to research this more before I can recommend it. I have heard that a version of SNESMOD by AugustusBlackheart and KungFuFurby is good. Sorry I can’t be more informative here.

Another program, BRRTools, can convert audio files to BRR. I haven’t used it, but the SNESGSS tool uses the same code. It says you can turn BRR samples into WAV and WAV into BRR. This could be a way to use existing BRR samples in our SNESGSS projects (by using this tool to convert them into WAV files first).

https://www.smwcentral.net/?p=section&a=details&id=17670

 

SNES main page

 

BG Collision

SNES programming tutorial. Example 9.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_09

 

This time we are going to make a collision map, and make a sprite collide with the background. The actual graphics are not that important.

I took some pictures of some blocks (and a sketch of a cube with eyes) and Photoshopped them (GIMP) into 16×16 sized PNG (indexed 16 colors) and converted them to SNES .chr files with Superfamiconv. Actually, I expanded them to 32×16, with the left just filled with black. I thought that would give us a consistent zero index color of black, and it seems to have worked. Then I loaded everything into my M1TE tool.

I made the BG map in M1TE. It would have been nice if it supported 16×16 tiles, (all of our blocks are 16×16) but I didn’t program in 16×16 tile mode yet. I can load this into the game, no problem, but there is no easy way to make a collision map out of this. I could type one by hand. It would be an array of numbers 16×14 (224 total). Zero for blank, 1 for wall. Each number would represent a 16×16 square area of the screen.

M1TE

This time I used Tiled Map Editor to make a collision map. I loaded a picture of my 3 tiles as the tileset (see right side), and recreated the BG map that I had made in M1TE. The entire purpose of this is to export a .csv file of our collision map… which is that collision array I was talking about.

Tiled

The CSV file exported from Tiled.

csv

I added some .byte directives so it can be loaded as a byte array into the asm code. 0 is blank, 1 is red wall, 2 is the yellow square. Maybe in the future I will program some clever app or tool to speed this up. This time I just copy and pasted the word “.byte” to each line and resaved it.

byte

 

Our code calculates where our guy is on the map, and prevents movements if it’s over a 1 (wall). We now collide with the red walls.

Example09

How does it do that? Let’s go over the code. So our byte array has each block 16×16. We need to divide x and y pixel coordinates by 16 (the same as shift right 4x). But we also need to multiply the y by 16 to get to the correct row in our array, which cancels out the divide 16. So the algorithm is (Y & 0xf0) + (X >> 4). If we look at that index in the byte array, it will tell us if a point is in a wall or not. This is the code, with X and Y registers holding the X and Y coordinates…

tya
and #$f0
sta temp1
txa
lsr a
lsr a
lsr a
lsr a
ora temp1
tax
lda HIT_MAP, x
rts

I handled each direction separately. First do the X move, then see if any of the corners of our sprite are inside a wall. If yes, revert to previous X position. Then do the Y move, see if any of the corners of our sprite are inside a wall. If yes, revert to previous Y position.

This code would need to be a little more complex if we move more than 1 pixel per frame. If we are moving 2-3 pixels per frame, and the distance to the wall is 1 pixel, we should allow 1 pixel movement toward the wall… and not be stuck 1 pixel away from the wall. So, this code will need to be improved.

.

Touching the yellow square will darken the screen. We are just looking if 1 point (the middle of our guy) is over a 2 in the collision map, and changing the screen brightness variable. Remember that the $2100 register is the screen brightness. I am writing to it every frame, during v-blank. Full brightness is $0f. Half brightness is $07.

Example09b

If we were scrolling in a larger world, the collision map would have to be the size of the world. You could have it compressed, and decompress it to the WRAM. You would have to keep track of X and Y movements with 2 byte variables. One thing I would not recommend is trying to read from the VRAM to see what kind of tile you are standing over. The visuals of the level should probably be separate from the collision map.

One more thing. It wouldn’t be too much trouble to turn this simple example into a platformer. You would just need to add gravity, which is adding a little bit to the Y speed every frame, and then cancelling that if your feet touch the floor. Jumping would be a sudden negative Y speed.

This is a really cool page that explains collision maps in more detail.

http://higherorderfun.com/blog/2012/05/20/the-guide-to-implementing-2d-platformers/

 

SNES main page

 

BG Scrolling

SNES programming tutorial. Example 8.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_08

 

So, this isn’t so complicated. I’m using the Example 4 backgrounds, and scrolling them with the controllers. I’m not going to go over the process of making backgrounds again. We will just talk about the scrolling code.

If you press A, B, X, or Y, you will toggle which background is selected. Visible by the sprite in the corner (1,2,3). This is the map_selected variable, which has a value 0-2.

The up/down/left/right functions will do a case switch style check on the map_selected variable. Normally, you would do CMP #1, CMP #2, CMP #3, etc. But you don’t actually need to do a CMP #0. This is something I see new 6502/65816 programmers do. The previous line “lda map_selected” already sets the z flag if map_selected is zero. Lot’s of instructions set the z (zero) and n (negative) flags. LDA, LDX, LDY, TAX, TXA, TXY, PLA, PLX, PLY, etc. If a register is loaded with zero, the z flag is set and BEQ will work.

Right_Handler:
.a16
.i16
  php
  A8
  lda map_selected
  bne @1or2
@0: ;BG1
  dec bg1_x
  bra @end
@1or2:
  cmp #1
  bne @2
@1: ;BG2
  dec bg2_x
  bra @end
@2: ;BG3
  dec bg3_x
@end: 
  plp
  rts

Let’s follow this for each value. If map_selected is zero, the BNE won’t branch, it goes to the @0, dec bg1_x and then exits. If map_selected is 1, the first BNE will branch to @1or2. A is still loaded with map_selected, we compare it to #1, the BNE won’t branch, so we do @1, dec bg2_x and exit. If map_selected is 2, the first BNE branches to @1or2, cmp #1 is false, so the bne @2 branches us to th @2 dec bg3_x line.

Notice, moving the map right means decreasing the horizontal scroll variable. Moving it left means increasing it. Likewise, moving a screen down is decreasing the vertical scroll, and moving it up is increasing it.

Scrolling registers are write twice (8 bit) each. Always write twice. You can actually write to these registers any time, but we want to do it during v-blank so we don’t get any shearing of the background in the middle for 1 frame. Near the top of the game loop, we have jsr set_scroll. Let’s look at set_scroll.

lda bg1_x
sta bg1_scroll_x ;$210d 
stz bg1_scroll_x
lda bg1_y
sta bg1_scroll_y ;$210e
stz bg1_scroll_y

lda bg2_x
sta bg2_scroll_x ;$210f
stz bg2_scroll_x
lda bg2_y
sta bg2_scroll_y ;$2110
stz bg2_scroll_y

lda bg3_x
sta bg3_scroll_x ;$2111
stz bg3_scroll_x
lda bg3_y
sta bg3_scroll_y ;$2112
stz bg3_scroll_y

bg1_x is a 1 byte variable, because our maps are set to 1 screen only (32×32 map and 8×8 tiles). If you made the tilemap bigger (or made the tile size larger), you would need 2 bytes for each scroll variable. With 64×32 our x needs 9 bits. If you also increase tilesize to 16×16 then we need 10 bits.

You can move each layer independently. Usually, you would have BG1 be the foreground and BG2 be the background and BG3 be either the far background or the HUD (scoreboard) always fixed in one place in the front.

Example08

 

SNES main page

 

Pong. Sprite collisions.

SNES programming tutorial. Example 7.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_07

 

I made a simple Pong demo to show sprite collisions.

Well… I was trying to keep it simple, but I decided to use some of the more complicated code I have previously written. Copied to the library.asm file from some of the EasySNES files. oam_spr (copies one sprite to the buffer), oam_meta_spr (copies multiple sprites to the buffer), oam_clear (clears the buffer), map_offset (gets an address from a specific x/y coordinate in a map). I did change the return from these functions from RTL to RTS, because all of our code is in the same bank.

Link if you are interested.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_00/blob/master/easySNES.asm

These functions are complex, and you don’t really need to understand them right now. Just focus on the sprite collision code and drawing numbers to the scoreboard.

check_collision is new. I will discuss that a bit later.

Let’s talk about the process of making this. I made a circle gradient in GIMP for the background, and converted to indexed 4 color (with dithering). Sized 256×192 (it won’t cover the entire screen).

Grad

Saved as uncompressed PNG. Converted to .chr .map .pal with superfamiconv. Loaded the background in M1TE (my tile/map editor).

BG1

Then I drew some numbers for BG3, and filled a little on the top and bottom.

BG3

Clicked the priority checkbox for this map.

Priority

Saved all the maps and tiles and palette. Pretty much the same as previous examples of loading a background.

Now I opened SPEZ (my sprite editor) and drew some simple box shapes for the ball and paddle. Saved them as metasprites.asm and saved their tiles (chr) and palette.

SPEZ7

Everything is .incbin -ed in the main.asm file. We are loading everything just like the previous examples, with DMAs to the VRAM. One difference is that I wrote a macro for DMAs to the VRAM. This made the code a little easier to read and write. Let’s look at an example…

DMA_VRAM $700, Map1, $6000

This is the DMA_VRAM macro definition…

.macro DMA_VRAM length, src_addr, dst_addr
;dst is address in the VRAM
;a should be 8 bit, xy should be 16 bit
ldx #dst_addr
stx vram_addr

lda #1
sta $4300 ; transfer mode, 2 registers 1 write
; $2118 and $2119 are a pair Low/High
lda #$18 ; $2118
sta $4301 ; destination, vram data
ldx #.loword(src_addr)
stx $4302 ; source
lda #^src_addr
sta $4304 ; bank
ldx #length
stx $4305 ; length
lda #1
sta $420b ; start dma, channel 0
.endmacro

So where it says length, the macro will insert the $700 bytes (not $800, because the screen is only 224 pixels high, so I’m not filling the entire 256 pixel high map). Where it says src_addr, it replaces it with Map1. Where it says dst_addr, it replaces it with VRAM address $6000. All that code could be written in one line.

DMA_VRAM $700, Map1, $6000

Doesn’t this look nicer though? Simple. Elegant. Easy to read. Macros are your friends.

Everything between InfiniteLoop and line 426 jmp InfiniteLoop is the game loop. Every frame we wait till v-blank. Copy the OAM_BUFFER to the OAM. Print the score to the top of the screen. Read the controllers. Move the paddles if up or down are pressed.

  lda pad1
  and #KEY_UP
  beq @not_up

@up:
  A8
  lda paddle1_y
  cmp #$20 ;max up
  beq @not_up ;too far up
  bcc @not_up

  dec paddle1_y
  dec paddle1_y

  dec paddle2_y
  dec paddle2_y

@not_up:

This code is moving both paddles, because this is just example code. You could modify it, so that controller2 moves the paddle on the right. Copy this whole thing, and replace pad1 with pad2, and only move paddle2. Also change the label names, so you don’t have duplicates.

We are only moving the ball while it is “active”. Press START to make it active, and choose a random direction to go (based on a frame counter).

lda #1
sta ball_active

ball_x_speed and ball_y_speed are the directions of the ball. Either 1 or -1 ($ff). Every frame we are adding the speed variable to the position variable. If speed is 1, we add 1 and it moves it to the right 1 pixel.

If the ball is active, it moves up/down until it reaches the ceiling or floor.

;bounce off ceilings
cmp #$20
bcs @above20

lda #1
sta ball_y_speed

;bounce off floor
lda ball_y
cmp #$c7
bcc @ball_done

lda #$ff ; -1
sta ball_y_speed

Sprite Collisions

It moves left/right until it reaches the end of the room. But we want it to bounce off the paddles, so we need to check collisions with hitboxes. I wrote this a long time ago (modified slightly). It’s the check_collision function in the library.asm file.

So we need the dimensions and location of the 4 sides of both boxes. That’s 8 numbers, that I copy to these variables…
obj1x, obj1w, obj1y, obj1h
obj2x, obj2w, obj2y, obj2h
x = left side of sprite object
w = width (minus 1), added to x to get the right side
y = top side of the sprite object
h = height (minus 1) , added to y to get the bottom side

I defined some of these with constants at the top of main.asm

BALL_SIZE = 7
PADDLE_W = 7
PADDLE_H = 47

Of course, the x and y values are changing. Those are defined as variables in the zero page (direct page).

paddle1_x, paddle1_y
paddle2_x, paddle2_y,
ball_x, ball_y

I copy these to the obj1 obj2 stuff, and then call check_collision, which sets the “collision” variable to 0 or 1. If collision is true, we bounce the ball. This collision check is for 8 bit positions only, and assumes that no object goes off the screen at all. The code won’t work right at the very edges of the screen.

Here’s what the collision code is doing, under the hood, in some optimized ASM.

if((obj1_right >= obj2_left) &&

(obj2_right >= obj1_left) &&

(obj1_bottom >= obj2_top) &&

(obj2_bottom >= obj1_top)) return 1;

else return 0;

 

.

I’m also drawing the sprites each frame. That uses the oam_meta_spr library function to read from a metasprite data set in metasprites.asm. I used SPEZ (my sprite editor tool) to generate this file.

Each sprite needs x, y, tile, attributes (flipping and palette), and size. The byte arrays listed in metasprites.asm provides all that. We just need to give it the starting x and y positions.

So, copy the x to spr_x, and the y to spr_y, and then loading A and X with the address of the metasprite data, and call our function. Remember ^ is for bank number.
A16
lda #.loword(Meta_00) ;left paddle
ldx #^Meta_00
jsr oam_meta_spr

And this will automatically put all the data in the OAM_BUFFER at the correct x and y positions. It also adjusts the high table bit shifting and keeps track of exactly how many sprites have been added (sprid).

*spr_x is 9 bits (uses 2 bytes). If the sprite never leaves the screen, just leave the upper byte of spr_x as zero. If you pass it more than 9 bits, it will ignore the extra bits.

The ball uses another function, oam_spr. This is for putting 1 sprite in the OAM BUFFER. You have to provide all the details of the sprite. Pass the x (9 bits) to spr_x, the y to spr_y, the tile # to spr_c, the attributes to spr_a, and set the size with spr_sz. spr_sz needs to be either 0 (small) or 2 (large). Then jsr oam_spr.

The metasprite function is actually easier to use, so you may choose to just use that every time. You just need to make a byte array of each sprite object.

Writing to the background

The print_score function always runs during v-blank. It has to, because it is writing to the VRAM. I’m using this map_offset function (in library.asm). It wants you to load X with the tile’s x position 0-31 and load Y with the tile’s y position 0-31. If you only have pixel X and Y, just shift right (lsr a) 3 times to get the 0-255 value to 0-31 (tile) for 8×8 tiles.

map_offset does some bit shifting to convert that to a VRAM address. It returns A16 = the offset. You add that to the base address (our BG3 map is at $7000).

ldx #12
ldy #1
jsr map_offset ; returns a16 = vram address offset
clc
adc #$7000 ;layer 3 map
sta vram_addr

and then copying 2 values per number on screen. We are writing with the VRAM increment set to +32. That means that the second write will go below the first one.

lda #V_INC_32
sta vram_inc ;$2115

Some of these values might be hard to understand, like, why are we adding $10 to the points_L? Our tiles for numbers begins at $10. 0 is at $10. 1 is at $11, etc. Anyway, here’s our finished program. Press START to get it going.

Example7

.
Try to make this into a game by having controller 2 to move the right paddle.

The ball is a bit slow, though. Moving 2 pixels per frame might be too fast. It would be best to use “fixed point” math, that’s a 16-bit variable for ball speed and position, where the upper byte refers to a pixel position, and the lower byte is a sub-pixel position (and speed). Then we could have 1 1/2 pixel per frame movement.

I wish we had some sound effects too. Maybe a little later for that.

 

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Controllers and NMI

SNES programming tutorial. Example 6.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_06

Controller reads

There is a set of registers that can be read like NES registers. Originally, they wanted to make it easy to transition from programming NES games to programming SNES games. They even used the same number $4016 and $4017n (ports 1 and 2). However, you shouldn’t read these. Instead you should turn on the auto-read feature… and also the NMI enable from register $4200.

With auto-controller reads set, the CPU will interrupt itself soon after the end of each frame and read all the buttons from both controllers and then store the values at $4218-$421b.

$4218-19 port 1
$421a-1b port 2
(if a multitap for 4 player games installed, 421c-d and 421e-f for controllers 3+4)

The button order is…
KEY_B = $8000
KEY_Y = $4000
KEY_SELECT = $2000
KEY_START = $1000
KEY_UP = $0800
KEY_DOWN = $0400
KEY_LEFT = $0200
KEY_RIGHT = $0100
KEY_A = $0080
KEY_X = $0040
KEY_L = $0020
KEY_R = $0010

And I use these constants as a bit mask (AND operation) to isolate the buttons.

The pad_poll function also does some bit twiddling to figure out which buttons have just been pressed this frame.

pad1 and pad2 are any button that is down, even if you been holding it down.
pad1_new and pad2_new are buttons that have just been newly pressed this frame.
We need call pad_poll each frame. How do we know that a new frame has started. That’s where the NMI comes in.

NMI

When the screen is on, the PPU spends most of it’s time drawing pixels to the screen, one line at a time. Starting at the top, it goes left to right and draw a line. Then it jumps to the left and draws the next line.

It does this so fast you can’t see it. But, since the PPU is busy, you can’t send new data to the VRAM. You can’t send new data to many of the PPU registers, such as the OAM. But when the screen is done drawing, the PPU rest in a vertical blank period for a little bit. During this v-blank period, you CAN access the PPU registers.

If you turn on NMI interrupts, when the PPU is done drawing to the screen… nearly at the very beginning of v-blank, the PPU sends an NMI signal. This happens every frame, which is 60 times a second (50 in Europe). That signal causes the CPU to pause and jump to the NMI vector (an address stored at $00ffea in the ROM). We have it set to jump to NMI: which is located in the init.asm file. (note, the NMI code needs to be in the 00 bank, or it’s mirror, the $80 bank).

The NMI code is just this.

pha
lda $4210 ; it is required to read this register
; in the NMI handler, don’t ask me why.
inc in_nmi
pla
rti

(many game have much more elaborate NMI code, btw).

And our code is waiting for the in_nmi variable to change. When it changes we know that we are in the v-blank period. Now is a good time to write to PPU registers or send data to the VRAM. But, also, we are using this to time our game loop.

wait_nmi: waits until we are in v-blank. We call this at the top of the game loop. Notice that I put a WAI (wait for interrupt) instruction here. If you neglected to turn NMI interrupts on, this would crash the game, as it waits forever for a signal that never comes. IRQ interrupts could also trip the WAI instruction, which is why I also wait for the in_nmi variable to change to be sure. You could delete the WAI instruction, if you would like*. Some games use this waiting loop to spin a random number generator. You could do that as well…. like adding a large prime number over and over, or just ticking a variable +1 over and over.

* someone told me that WAI could make an emulator run less laggy, as it would have less to do each frame. It also saves electricity, because the CPU uses less while it waits. You decide if you need it or not.

Soon after the wait_nmi function runs, we run our DMA to the OAM (copy our sprite buffer to the sprite RAM). This needs to be done during v-blank, which is why we do it first. Then, we run our pad_poll to read new button presses. Then we enter the game logic. Here’s an example of what we are doing to move the sprite.

Our sprite is composed of 3 sprites that move together (16×16 each). Each time we press the right button, we need to increase the X value of each sprite. Left, we decrease the X values. Each sprite uses 4 bytes, so each sprite X value is 4 bytes apart. So we do this…

  AXY16
  lda pad1
  and #KEY_LEFT
  beq @not_left
@left:
  A8
  dec OAM_BUFFER ;decrease the X values
  dec OAM_BUFFER+4
  dec OAM_BUFFER+8
  A16
@not_left:

LDA loads the A register with pad1, which has all the button presses for controller 1. We apply a bit mask (AND) to isolate the left button. If it is zero, the button isn’t being pressed, and it will branch (BEQ) over our code. Otherwise, it will then to the dec OAM_BUFFER lines. Dec can be 8 bit or 16 bit, depending on the size of the A register. We want 8 bit, so we A8 for that. We need the A16, to make sure we exit this bit of code with A always in 16 bit mode.

We repeat that process 3 more times for RIGHT, UP, and DOWN buttons.

And these values are copied to the OAM each frame, which moves our sprites on screen. Let’s look closely what happens when you scroll off screen. Y values 224 to 256 are off screen to the bottom, but they would eventually wrap around to the top.

example6b

But moving the sprite to the left, from x=00 to x=$ff (255)

example6d

The sprite suddenly disappears. Which is weird.

example6f

That’s why we need that 9th x bit in the high table. Here’s what it looks like at the far right without the high table x bit set.

example6c

Here’s with the high table x bit set.

example6e

So we need it for smoothly moving off the left side of the screen.

We didn’t do that in this example, but I worked up some code that can manage this, for next time.

.

Final note. The code here is not particularly good. Keeping the sprite variables in the OAM_BUFFER itself is not very good practice. I have seen other tutorials do this, and I did it so it would be easier to understand, but I don’t like it. It would be better to keep every sprite object as a set of variables (x and y maybe as 16-bit variables), that get copied to the OAM_BUFFER in a dynamic way, so that enemy objects can be created and destroyed without causing holes/gaps in the OAM_BUFFER. With that approach, you would clear the buffer at the start of each frame, and then draw the necessary sprites as needed every frame.

That might be slower code, but much more flexible.

.

SNES main page

 

Sprites

SNES programming tutorial. Example 5.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SNES_05

 

Sprites are the graphic objects that can move around the screen. Nearly all characters are made of sprites… Mario, Link, Megaman, etc. The OAM RAM controls how each sprites appear.

Mario

You will notice that Mario is made of 2 16×16 sprites. It is common to use more than 1 sprite for a character. Rex is also made of 2 16×16 sprites, with the lower sprite several pixels to the right of the top one. You can also layer sprites on top of each other, but with 15 colors to choose from, you shouldn’t have to.

You could increase the large sprite size to 32×32, but that would end up wasting more VRAM space on blank spaces. 8×8 and 16×16 are more common. I call it a “metasprite” when it is a collection of multiple sprites to make up 1 character. The SPEZ sprite editor I wrote saves these as tables of numbers (metasprite/save options). And the tiles save as 4bpp CHR files.

https://github.com/nesdoug/SPEZ

I actually used SPEZ to draw the example sprites, but you may choose to use YY-CHR or some other tile editor. But let’s go over how sprites work.

spez

 

OAM

The official docs call sprites “objects”. You need to write data to the OAM RAM to get them to show up on screen.

There are 2 tables in the OAM, and you need to write both of them, usually a DMA during v-blank or forced blank. (v-blank is the vertical blank period, the slight pause after each frame is drawn to the TV where the PPU isn’t doing anything, and can be updated for the next frame).

Low Table

The low table (512 bytes) is divided into 4 bytes per Sprite, with sprite #0 using bytes 0,1,2,3 and sprite , #1 using bytes 4,5,6,7, etc… up to sprite #127. 4 x 128 = 512 bytes.
Those bytes are, in this order…
x, y, tile #, attributes.
X and Y are screen relative, in pixels (for the top left of the sprite).

Attributes

vhoopppN
v vertical flip
h horizontal flip
oo priority
ppp palette
N 1st or 2nd set of tiles (you can have up to 512 tiles for sprites).

The High Table

There are 32 bytes in the high table for 128 sprites. That’s 2 bits per sprite, and it can be very tedious to manage. Lots of bit shifting. The bits are

sx (s upper bit, x lower bit)
s= size (small or large)
x = 9th bit for x

The extra X bit is so you can smoothly move a sprite off the left side of the screen. With that bit set and the regular X set to $ff, that would be like -1. Whereas, without the extra X bit, $ff would be the far right of the screen, with only 1 pixel wide showing.

How are the 2 bits put together?
Let’s say,
Sprite 0 = aa
Sprite 1 = bb
Sprite 2 = cc
Sprite 3 = dd
The the first byte of the high table is
ddccbbaa
or (dd << 6) + (cc << 4) + (bb << 2) + aa

Palettes

Sprites use the second half of the CGRAM (palette). It is 15 colors + transparency for each palette. Sprite palette #0 uses indexes 128-143. Sprite palette #1 uses indexes 144-159. And so forth.

Priorities

I like to set sprite priority to 2. That would be in front of bg layers (but behind layer 3 if it’s set as super-priority in front of everything). Higher sprite priority would be in front of sprites with lower priority.

Besides priorities…Low index sprites will go in front of higher index ones. Sprite #0 would be in front of Sprite #1. Sprite #1 would be in front of Sprite #2. Sprite #2 would be in front of Sprite #3. Etc.

There is a limit to how many sprites can fit on a horizontal line. And using larger sprites doesn’t improve that, internally it splits sprites up into 8×1 slivers, and only 32 slivers can fit on a line. The 33rd one disappears. Because of this, you could shuffle the sprites every frame. That’s a lot of sprites, so I see most games just ignore this problem, and try not to put too many sprites on each line. Space shooter games (lots of sprites on screen at once) re-order the sprites in the OAM manually every frame. Some kind of shuffling algorithm, to make sure no bullets hit you that you couldn’t see.

Caution. Don’t put sprites at X position 0x100. (with the 9th bit 1 and the regular X at 00) They will be off screen, but will somehow count towards the 32 sprites per line limit.

Clearing Sprites

If you leave the OAM zeroed, it will display sprites at X=0, Y=0, Tile=0, palette=0… and the top left of the screen would have 128 sprites on top of each other. If you just want ALL sprites off screen, you could just turn them off from the main screen ($212c). But to put an individual sprite off screen, you should put its Y value at 224 (assuming screens are left to the default 224 pixel height). This would put 8×8,16×16, and 32×32 sprites off screen, but 64×64 sprites would wrap around to the top of the screen… so it’s a good idea to also reset the sprite size bit to 0.
.

Let’s go over the code.

Code

We need to change a few settings, first.
$2101 sets the sprite size and the location of the sprite tiles.
sssnnbbb
sss = size mode*
nn = offset for 2nd set of sprite tiles. leave it at zero, standard.
bbb = base address for the sprite tiles.
Again, the upper bit is useless. So, each b is a step of $2000.

* size modes are

000 = 8×8 and 16×16 sprites
001 = 8×8 and 32×32 sprites
010 = 8×8 and 64×64 sprites
011 = 16×16 and 32×32 sprites
100 = 16×16 and 64×64 sprites
101 = 32×32 and 64×64 sprites

.

lda #2
sta $2101 ; sprite tiles at VRAM $4000, sizes are 8×8 and 16×16

And we need to make sure sprites show up on the main screen.

lda #$10
sta $212c ; main screen

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/sprites

https://wiki.superfamicom.org/registers

From here on out, I am going to use BUFFERS. Buffers are temporary locations in local RAM that will be copied (DMA) each frame to the actual memory (the OAM RAM)… during the v-blank period. Well, next time we will do that. In this example, we are doing it once during forced blank (2100 bit 7 set), which is also fine.

We are using a block move macro to copy from the ROM to the BUFFER.

BLOCK_MOVE 12, Sprites, OAM_BUFFER

to set up a MVN operation (to copy a block of data from the ROM to the RAM). See macros.asm for details.

And I’m writing just one byte to the high table. We only need 3 sprites in this example, so we will only need 2×3=6 bits, setting the size of each to large (16×16).

lda #$2A ;= 00101010
sta OAM_BUFFER2

Now I will DMA both tables at once. A DMA to the OAM looks like this…

; DMA from OAM_BUFFER to the OAM RAM
ldx #$0000
stx oam_addr_L ;$2102 (and 2103)

stz $4300 ; transfer mode 0 = 1 register write once
lda #4 ;$2104 oam data
sta $4301 ; destination, oam data
ldx #.loword(OAM_BUFFER)
stx $4302 ; source
lda #^OAM_BUFFER
sta $4304 ; bank
ldx #544
stx $4305 ; length
lda #1
sta $420b ; start dma, channel 0

That’s 544 bytes being copied to the $2104 (OAM DATA register) after we zeroed the OAM address registers ($2102-3). We need to write the whole thing. I recommend always writing to the OAM with a 544 byte DMA. Even if you don’t want to set any of the high table bits, write both tables every time. The first demo I made didn’t work on a real SNES because I failed to write to the high table. DMA all 544 bytes to the OAM, and you won’t have problems.

The data we are transferring looks like this…

Sprites:
;4 bytes per sprite = x, y, tile #, attribute
.byte $80, $80, $00, SPR_PRIOR_2
.byte $80, $90, $20, SPR_PRIOR_2
.byte $7c, $90, $22, SPR_PRIOR_2

With the top left sprite at x = $80 and y = $80. We are using tiles 00,20,22, and all of the sprites use palette #0 and priority #2 (above BG layers).

And this is what it looks like.

example5

Try drawing your own sprite, and getting it to show up on screen.

 

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